No countless nation, German cornerstone new light
No countless nation, German cornerstone new light
General Manager of Beijing Lianxun Power Consulting Company, the initiator of Nanshan Industrial College
Special -invited researcher at Nanshan Industrial College Advanced Manufacturing Industry
Create a new warship sailing
More than a century ago, Germany’s industry was promoted to “manufacture in Germany.” This is exactly when the German measurement discipline rises, the German National Institute (PTB) was born. Coupled with diversified standards and ubiquitous certifications, they have become the guarantee of precision manufacturing in Germany.
Today, measurement and testing technology has once again played a decisive role in history -all the fields of innovation disciplines depend on a large number of complex network measurement data. Smart energy networks need accurate electricity meters, especially for electricity participating in high -frequency transactions. And cope with the risk of disaster, autonomous driving also generate a large number of precise measurement needs. Digital workshops, personalized medical treatment or testing data have made meters a new focus.
In all this, whether high -frequency data, massive data, and artificial intelligence algorithm can really become a trusted transparent productive forces need strict monitoring.
From technological innovation, product development, to standardized supervision and approval, and continuous quality assurance of market access, measurement innovation is essential. “Made in Germany” proposes a new vision. The measurement and testing of it must be network and convenient, which requires a new structure and program to ensure the quality of the network (measurement) data, reference and test data sets. The above new measures are related to people’s trust in artificial intelligence decision -making.
As a core component of the German National Quality Infrastructure (NQI), what are the exciting progress of its cutting -edge and cornerstone fields? What flat innovations have been carried out at the system level and are closely integrated with the industry, especially the manufacturing industry?
The German National Institute gives a new answer, which is digital measurement. Therefore, it applied for the German government and established a specialized measurement institute: System Measurement Innovation Center (IZSM). Just like to maintain the ability of the U.S. military’s disruptive innovation and the activity of the US Department of Defense’s senior pre -research bureau (DARPA), the United States has also established a more independent and flexible second innovation center (DIUX), and it is placed on Silicon Valley. Every old institution, even dedicated to innovation, needs to cultivate a second body.
The mission of System Measurement Innovation Center (IZSM) is that for the digital world composed of sensors, networks, and algorithms, it must maintain accuracy and certainty.
This task sounds simple. In fact, it is not a disruption of the cornerstone of the century -old metering. It requires a science and data ability that is not familiar with ancient measurement. Therefore, the IZSM center must be flat, flexible, and project -oriented organizational structure to ensure the rapid implementation of system capabilities. IZSM and the German Institute of Metrology have played a role in complementary organizations and order.
Figure 1 System Measurement Innovation Center
The agile, flexible, and open IZSM is a digital catalyst, which accelerates the innovative cycle of digital and network measurement data products. As a center of cross -application research and development capabilities, IZSM is actually the most important “system measurement”. It requires a perspective of system engineering to re -examine the order that has been established. This requires it to operate with a legal and independent center, and it needs to obtain long -term basic public funds. On the basis of about 50 million euros per year, it has achieved year -on -year growth. It is planned to hire 500 people in the early stage and work in the same place in the two courtyards of PTB. IZSM will invest a total of about 100 million euros in terms of construction and basic equipment.
The newly established System Measurement Innovation Center (IZSM) has become a pioneer of the German metering this century -old ship sent to the deep sea. System Measurement Innovation Center (IZSM) acts as a catalyst of data -based product innovation cycle, while PTB guarantees a reliable framework.
Energy measurement with unlimited scenery
The Russian conflict has temporarily brought overcast energy to Germany’s energy transformation. But Germany’s energy transformation target will not shake in the long run. It needs to create a new, sustainable, distributed energy system within decades to achieve zero carbon dioxide emissions. The German national measurement agency is to establish a reliable measurement to meet the measurement and testing of the decision -making makers and consumer protection fields from the industry, policy level decision makers, and consumer protection.
The German national measurement agencies have developed some unique measurement and calibration technology options in the world, not only in the field of solar energy and wind energy, but also the development and energy efficiency of transmission and distribution networks, batteries and other storage components, hydrogen technology.
Energy transformation provides an opportunity to become a “manufacturing” climate -friendly technology stage. But this can only be successful with excellent measurement technology. It is a key discipline for environmental and climatic protection and safety, environmental protection and economy.
According to the German government’s plan, by 2050, 50%of the required electricity will be self -wind turbines in the future. The technical requirements of high -performance and tall wind turbine of large rotor diameter are huge, and it is necessary to calibrate the reliable operation of the turbine. Therefore, PTB established a wind energy center, becoming the first national measurement agency to provide reliable and comprehensive quality assurance for the wind energy industry. Private technologies include: large three -coordinate measuring machines to trace the measurement traceability of large components such as high -precision gear components (5m × 4MX2M measurement volume).
The world’s largest torque standard measurement equipment, the maximum torque can reach 5mNm, and it is expected to expand the system to 20mnm for a long time. It can also be used for the most advanced laser radar sensor technology (light detection and ranging), including for calibration, including calibration And accurately determine the wind tunnel of the laser radar system and the development method for predicting the interruption of flight safety equipment caused by wind turbine.
Figure 2 Merit and traceability of large components (5m × 4m × 2m) for the first time
The same is true of photovoltaic. In 2035, photovoltaics are expected to account for about 20%of German total power generation. Germany plans to invest as many as 100 billion euros solar modules. Each 1%of the efficiency of solar modules will directly lead to losses or surplus of 1 billion euros in finance. Therefore, the German Institute of Metrology has set up a photovoltaic meter capacity center. It provides a unique laboratory and free -field calibration method infrastructure, with the lowest measurement uncertainty in the world. Here focuses on difficulty variables, the power, angle dependence, and the temperature of the solar module under the standard test conditions, the temperature of the solar module to the spectrum and the wind speed dependence. The LED -based solar emulator is equipped with 16,000 high -performance LEDs and 18 colors that can be controlled separately. Being in it is simply interstellar traversal through the solar system.
In fact, this has become the only national measurement agency in Europe that can measure the measurement results of reference to solar cells. About 50%of all systems installed worldwide can be traced back to the institution.
The forefront of quantum metering
Quantum is a ghost elf. Its birth is mysterious, but even if people master its principles, its operation is still mysterious. Even the quantum scientific and technological achievements of a professor of the University of Science and Technology of China have actually become a hot spot and have always become a hot spot. But in scientists, it has become more and more successfully controlled by the quantum world. The application of the quantum industry is also followed.
From the quantum communication of security data and quantum computers with computing power beyond imagination, to quantum simulation for chemical reactions, as well as quantum sensors used for medical diagnosis, they are release the potential of commercialization. The European Commission set up a billions of dollars of “quantum technology flagship” funding plan and supporting German national funding plans to widely promote this potential. At the same time, traditional companies and emerging companies are promoting development to push new products based on quantum technology (QT) to the market.
Then you must measure the quantum: even if its bad temper, even if its uncertainty, even if it has measurement, it collapses.
The world has been discovered by the time of quantum mechanics for more than 100 years. Today, we believe that many technical applications of quantum physics are taken for granted -from laser to semiconductor technology to magnetic resonance imaging (MRT). The German Institute of Metrology is standing at the starting point of quantum mechanics with its measurement technology, and is promoting the possibility of the measurement of the second quantum revolution. To this end, the PTB specializes in setting up the quantum technical capacity center. “Second -generation quantum technology” can control a single quantum object and use the basic quantum effects in a targeted manner -for future technological innovation, which makes it possible to use the next -generation atomic clock, more accurate electrical standards and medical measurement.
The first is the measurement of time, how to establish a quantum -level atomic clock. Atomic clocks are widely used in satellite navigation: In order to locate themselves or objects, evaluate the dissemination time of exchange signals, that is, the more accurate the clock goes, the more accurate positioning. And measuring the gravitational field of the earth is also a major challenge. The atomic clock is very sensitive to their position. According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, local gravity will affect the process of time, thereby affecting the process of the clock. The ticking sound of the atomic clock on the sea level is not the same as on the mountain. The best clock today has recorded a few centimeters of height differences.
Similarly, quantum magnetic field sensors will also play an important role in medical imaging. Humans do not feel the magnetic field, but the magnetic fields in the organism can be detected through the sensor, and they are used for medical imaging. The quantum effect is increasingly used to collect information that cannot be obtained by using traditional methods. One of the methods to understand the internal conditions of the human body is to measure the very weak magnetic field that the brain occurs when thinking or heartbeat. A quantum effect is used for sensitive sensors that are very sensitive to this weak magnetic field, such as superconductivity to achieve measurement testing. There is also a medical biomarler. Medical Association uses “spy sensors” to find out internal lesions. If nanoparticles are implanted in patients, their paths may be affected by certain particle characteristics, such as tracking their magneticity to achieve medical testing. The superconductant quantum interference device (Squid) is a highly sensitive sensor, which is especially suitable for detecting very weak magnetic fields. Squid magnetic meter has been used to measure the minimum magnetic field produced by human brain neurons for many years. The SQUID technology of the German Institute of Metrology is supplemented by the “Optical Pump Magnetic Mecket (OPM)”. Among them, the atoms use laser to “read” with laser, compared with Squid, and do not need to cool down at low temperatures such as liquid pupa.
The magnetic field in the biological body is very small. In contrast, the magnetic field of the Earth and our electrified world is huge. Therefore, the German Institute of Metrology in the world performs its biomagnetical reference measurement in the special shielding room of the world’s “quietestrack” (“Berlin Magnetic shielding room BMSR”). The facilities and technology are also open to external partners from industry and research.
There are also obsessed quantum computers. The value of the classic bit is 0 or 1. This binary is the foundation of the current computer. All chips, operating systems and applications are built on such cornerstones. However, quantum bits did not describe this choice, but also described two possibilities at the same time. Classic computers can only be continuously calculated in a large number and very fast single steps, while quantum computers can work on a large scale. However, the prerequisite is an excellent isolation of the fragile quantum position and excellent control of the state of these quantum positions. If these requirements are met, quantum computers can already solve the special tasks that are unable to solve the supercomputers today.
Quantum cryptography is also interesting. In the era of big data, people have been thoroughly digitized and transparent. Large amounts of data are collected, processed and exchanged through fiber, air or satellites. Everyone forms an endless information flow in countless bites, crossing the world at the speed of light. However, such data needs to be safely exchanged between the sender and the receiver. From medical data from medical patients to financial data between banks, to highly sensitive political and economic data. The principle of the quantum world promises that there is internal security data transmission. Use quantum encryption based on natural laws rather than mathematical algorithms, and it is impossible to be “eavesdropped” in physical.
The quantum technical capacity center of the German Institute of Metrology has laid the foundation for these endless quantum applications.
The key to precision medical care
Medical measurement has a long tradition, and the development of quantitative and personalized medical treatment is in a broader future. Measurement must be accurate, reliable and trust. This is the core competitiveness of measurement, because it ensures the traceability of many important measurement methods. EU’s in vitro diagnostic regulations and German medical device law have clear measurement requirements. According to the “Measurement and Calibration Law”, the German Institute of Metrology is the only designated institution in Germany to conduct sound -level test -type inspection. Metrology is important for one of the most important development of medicine: more and more quantitative measurement trends, such as in the field of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The German Institute of Metrology is also further strengthening the connection with doctors, clinics and medical technology industries.
On the path of medical customization for individuals, acoustics plays a pioneering role, because it has been paying attention to establishing quantitative measurement data in clear individuals and age -related fields for a long time. For example, a ear simulator was developed in a European project, which significantly improved the hearing test of the newborn and could use a specific hearing threshold for all ages. Another important task is to prevent noise. The European Environment Department classified it as an increasingly serious environmental issue, and its measurement must meet the legal requirements. The same is true in the field of ultrasonic waves, it maintains national standards and calibrates the water hearing device. All these tasks are related to the safety of patients and ultrasound users (such as doctors) and strengthen existing measurement infrastructure. At the other end of the auditory spectrum, for the second sound that may be caused by various environmental factors, it is necessary to first establish this infrastructure, and acoustic experts still see a lot of research potential.
Since the beginning of the new crown, most people know the importance of laboratory values in medicine. A large part of all medical diagnostic decisions is a quantitative analysis based on the concentration of diagnostic signs in the body fluid. In the examination of medicine, according to EU’s in vitro diagnostic regulations, all control materials must be traced on the measurement. The German Metrology Research Institute has a high reputation in quantitative protein in serum and flow cell meter cells.
However, measurement is always backward market. Due to the rapid development of biomedicine and biochemistry, many new methods of diagnosis and treatment have been produced, which has caused the development of measurement technology to keep up with. Considering the international nature of the market, legislation, and research: The German Institute of Metrology and the other nine other European institutions, with the support of the European National Measurement Agency (EURAMET), jointly formed a research network, “used to test the traceability of medicine can traceability. European Measurement Network (EMN).
The correct dose for the tumor is also rising. Each year, 50,000 Germans are diagnosed with cancer -and this trend is still rising due to aging. More than half of cancer patients receive radiation therapy and combine it alone or with chemotherapy or surgery. It is essential to accurately measure the energy deposited by various radiation therapies. It is characterized by measuring variables “absorption doses”. Using the main standards of the German Metrology Research Institute, this unit can be represented by the world’s lowest measurement uncertainty and passed the calibration of the secondary standards. In the end, all doses used by German radiation therapy clinics to this purpose can be traced back to the main standards of the German Institute of Metrology through a complete calibration chain.
Environmental climate monitoring new merit
The deterioration of the environment and climate, the complexity exceeds the goals of carbon emissions, and also exceeds the national boundaries. Because environmental and climate change does not distinguish between borders, the most important international partner in climate monitoring is the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The organization operates the Global Atmospheric Surveillance Network (GAW) and Global Climate Observation System (GCOS). For example, the latter defines 54 basic climate variables, that is, physics, chemistry and biological parameters aimed at describing global climate conditions. The changes in these quantities are actually very small. It requires long -term, highly accurate and reliable (that is, dates back to the international unit system) to identify its evolution.
In terms of environmental protection, an important partner of the German Institute of Metrology is the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA); in addition to the other, the European air and water framework instructions provide legal framework. The German Institute of Metrology is also responsible for the traceability and certification of vehicle exhaust gas measurement, and has continuously expanded its skills in this field.
A key task of climate monitoring is to observe the most important atmospheric component that affects greenhouse effects. In addition to the use of ground stations and satellites, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) also uses aircraft, balloons or drones to measure the atmosphere in its global atmospheric surveillance network (GAW) plan. The German Institute of Metrology provides measures that support the traceability of international units that support the measurement of water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and smoke gas solids, and formulate national standards and measurement methods.
Because new pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, or particles) are classified as priorities and stricter definitions, new measurement challenges are constantly facing. At present, it can only take a lot of effort to determine the vertical distribution of pollutants. The starting point of the “MESSBAR” project funded by the German Federal Communications and Digital Infrastructure Department is to improve this measurement efficiency. As a result, the German Institute of Metrology and the Federal Environment Agency is developing and verifying drone -based flight measurement systems under the MESSBAR project framework. Three helicopters are equipped with micro sensors used to detect finecock, cigarettes, nitrogen oxides and ozone, and determine the pollution of space in a one -kilometer city and metropolitan area.
Tips: Measurement innovation is the corners
Meritology is a measurement science, which has always been of great significance to the coexistence of human society. It has always been a prerequisite for commodity exchange and trade development. Digitalization is greatly expanding the boundaries of measuring. However, measurement still has its cornerstone and cutting -edge effects on social and economic development. In the context of energy transformation, it not only provides the “Made in Germany” climate -friendly technology, the next -generation atomic clock and precision medicine measurement provides possible, refresh the diagnosis and treatment equipment, and are escorting humans. The precise metering based on measurement data is the fundamental guarantee for the digital world. The cornerstone of “made in Germany” is being polished again, and its gloriously moves towards new quality.
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