What are the opportunities and problems of this global crazy chip?
If there is no MCU, we will not deserve to be called “modern people”.
MCU is not a Marvel universe. As a necessity of modern life, MCU (MicroController Unit, microcontrollers, and list machines) has long been integrated into human production and life, everywhere. Air conditioners, remote controls, smart chargers … Electronic products that need to be automated in any life will basically be equipped with MCUs. Various home appliances usually need at least one, while complex industrial equipment or cars use tens to hundreds of to hundreds of hundreds One. They carry the small functions you are accustomed to: temperature adjustment, remote control lock car, choosing a washing machine working mode, and so on. If there is no MCU, like an electronic product lacks a “heart”, it cannot be created, let alone sell it.
This article is the first article of the “domestic alternative” series planned by “Fruit Hard Technology”, which focuses on MCU domestic replacement. In this article, you will understand: the classification and market overview of the MCU; the opportunity and challenges of Chinese manufacturers during chip shortage.
Fu Bin 丨 Author
Li Tuo, Liu Dongyu 丨 Edit
Fruits Hard Technology Team 丨 Planning
“Core” is a topic that has never decreased since the epidemic, and MCU is not only a “severe disaster area” that is out of stock, but the price increase may also be the most outrageous.
For example, since October 2020, the STM32F103RET6, which is about 10 yuan/piece in normal conditions, has risen all the way. Until July 2021, the quotation of up to 400 yuan/piece occurred, the increase of nearly 40 times. Because the MCU of this model is the material used by a bicycle sharing of a brand, it has even been sold by the vendor for 40 yuan/low price.  We inquired about some distributors’ information and found that most distributors are currently 0, and the quotation with inventory is still as high as about 200 yuan/piece.
Shipping in the global MCU application field and market overview watch 丨 fruit shell hard technology map | Some company official website and related websites, China Merchants Securities, AI Electric Hall
According to Deloitte, many types of chips will still face shortage during 2022, and the shortage will be relieved for 24 months, which is similar to the chip shortage from 2008 to 2009.  However, in the case of scarcity, the demand of the MCU has not increased. According to statistics from the industry research institution ReserChandmarkets, global MCU shipments in 2020 are more than 28 billion yuan. 
Introduced domestic MCUs at the time. Where is the opportunity of domestic MCUs under the parallel of shortcomings and price increases?
The “empty window period” opportunity of domestic MCU
On a, a central processing unit, random memory, read only memory, and computer other functions are integrated, which is equivalent to a miniature computer with complete function, strong control, strong anti -interference, small volume, low power consumption, low cost, low cost It has become a “darling” in the electron era.  The MCU can replace the complex electronic line control system through software to achieve intelligence and lightweight control. In addition, MCU is also one of the typical processors of embedded systems.
因此,MCU能够广泛使用在各类电子产品中,工业控制、电机控制、智慧城市、智能表计、智能家电、智能门锁/门禁医疗、电池及能源管理、生物识别、光通信、 Sensor control and robot … It can be said that MCU is a “universal key” that solves all control needs scenarios, and its downstream applications also penetrate into thousands of industries.
With the rise of the Internet of Things, Internet of Vehicle, 5G, and new offices below the epidemic, the MCU market that can be applied to various scenarios has gradually expanded. The latest forecast of IC Insights shows that the capital expenditure of global semiconductors is expected to reach 152 billion US dollars in 2021, soaring by 34%, which is the largest percentage increase since 2017. The expenditure of foundry and MPU/MCU departments increased the largest year -on -year, 42%.  Chi Xiannian, a senior consultant of Cisics Advisor Integrated Circuit Center, predicts that the MCU is expected to increase significantly in 2021. By 2025, the global market size is expected to reach 22.9 billion US dollars, and the compound growth rate of compound growth in 2020 ~ 2025 will reach 8 %. 
Semiconductor capital expenditure in 2021, Figure Source 丨 IC Insights
At present, MCU is divided into different indicators as different indicators
As well as
Industrial -grade MCU
Auto -grade MCU
Essence Different MCUs have different rates of good products. Among them, consumer MCU focuses on power consumption and cost, industrial -grade MCU focuses on balanced performance, power consumption, cost and reliability, while automobile -grade MCUs focus on safety and reliability.
From consumption to industry to automobiles, the requirements for MCU itself are becoming stricter, and the production line is becoming more and more high -end. This is the most difficult reason for the car MCU to create.
Consumption -level MCU delivery yield is generally ≤200DPPM (DPPM: number of defects per million), and the delivery rate of automobile -class MCU needs to reach ≤1dppm, which means that there are only one bad product per million device, and the car MCU is used in the car MCU use Life is often greater than 15 years, and the reliability requirements are extremely high. In addition, the car-level MCU has a bad operating environment, and it is usually required to withstand the working temperature of -40 ° C ~ 125 ° C. The engine compartment requires even a temperature resistance capacity of up to 150 ° C.
Consumption, industry, automotive -level chip evaluation indicators comparison watchmaking 丨 fruit shell hard technology data source 丨 core road communication, Minsheng Securities Research Institute, chip domestic alternative, etc.
Therefore, many domestic enterprises start from consumer and industrial levels, and gradually enter the automotive -level MCU. The Huadian Semiconductor MCU Division (now “Xiaohua Semiconductor”) has told the author that the company will build the four major products of ultra -low power consumption, general control, motor control and automotive electronics, and use the automotive MCU as the The company’s “highest level” realizes “full flowering”.
Minsheng Securities Research Report shows,
The MCU market has long been held by 75%of the seven Overseas MCU giants ST, NXP, Microchip, RENESAS, Infineon, TI, and Cypress.
The Chinese MCU market accounts for about 23%of the global proportion, especially for high -end market self -sufficiency. 
Domestic MCU is the industry chaser, which will also be reflected in the distribution of MCUs at home and abroad. In the global MCU market, automotive electronics accounts for 33%, the largest market for MCU, followed by industrial control/medical, computer network, and consumer electronics. In contrast, the Chinese MCU market, the consumer electronics field accounts for the highest proportion, reaching 26%, and the automobile and industry MCU is ranked two or three. 
Global MCU downstream market application ratio & China MCU application market account for the source 丨 Cinda Securities R & D Center
Domestic MCUs in various fields in various fields 丨 Aspencore
However, it is proud that the domestic market has grown significantly in recent years. Data show that from 2013 to 2018, the domestic MCU market CAGR was 10.9%, which was much higher than the growth rate of 4.5%in the world during the same period. According to IHS data, the size of the Chinese MCU market in 2020 is expected to reach 26.88 billion yuan, and the Chinese MCU market CAGR from 2020 ~ 2022 is 8.99%.
In the lack of cores, the delivery cycle of the seven overseas giants has shown an upward trend. Some companies are facing a long -term stateless state. This situation has become a “window period” to introduce domestic products.
Essence Industry people have told the author that although a small chip that seems inconspicuous, it affects the delivery of the entire product. Some car companies cannot deliver the vehicle due to the lack of the “miniature brain” MCU of the car.
The MCU delivery cycle is continuously extended, the source 丨 Huatai Research Institute 
There are also many engineers admitting to the author that the company has been using foreign products for a long time and has not replaced the motivation. However, in this round of chips, the company has begun to encourage engineers to replace MCU products in parallel.
In the “empty window period”, consumer, industrial -grade and automobile -level MCU have formed a larger market, and the opportunities for domestic MCU manufacturers are here.
Domestic MCU “siege”
In the second half of 2021, the “MCU deficiency” became more and more serious, but the demand did not decrease. Daniel Cooley, chief technology officer of Silicon Labs, recently stated that by 2023, the global MCU shipments are expected to reach 30 billion, and it has not been released Signs.
Domestic manufacturers realized the huge opportunities for admission early in the early days, growth in R & D, investment and financing, and upgraded from consumer -level to industrial automobile -level MCUs. This has spawned many emerging enterprises. At the same time, companies that have been working in the market for many years have also begun to use investment and financing to consolidate their positions, which has a kind of “rushing collection” atmosphere.
In this wave, the strategies of different enterprises are not the same. Some specializing in the automotive field, some shout “I want all”, and some use RISC-V or develop independent IP. From the perspective of the downstream application market, consumer -grade, industrial -grade, and automotive -grade MCU all have different “breakouts”.
In the second half of 2021, MCU -related enterprises investment and financing; watchmaking 丨 fruit shell hard technology, data source 丨 official public information
Consumer MCU: Market driven by smart devices
Domestic MCUs mainly start in consumer electronics, and the proportion of consumer markets is also considerable. However, according to many media verification and corporate self -report, domestic consumer -level MCUs are “fighting” from the price in order to “grab customers at a low price”.
With the rise of the Internet of Things, smart home appliances and wearable devices have become the key to the growth of the consumer MCU market. Diversified functions will inevitably lead to an increase in the number of MCUs.
Smart appliances are divided into large household appliances and small appliances. Black home appliances such as air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines such as air conditioners, refrigerators, and washing machines, and home theater, small appliances mainly refer to household appliances for the purpose of home and kitchen and bathroom, including soymilk machines, including soymilk machines , Breakthrough, induction cooker, electric fan, hair dryer and other dailyive electrical appliances.
White Electric and small appliances are the focus of MCU breakout in the consumer market.
According to China Merchants Securities, the overall scale of China ’s home appliances MCU is about 5 billion yuan, of which about 2.5 billion to 3 billion yuan in white electricity MCUs, about 2 billion yuan of small appliances MCUs. The upgrade is expected to increase the demand for MCU; the size of the small home appliance market has continued to increase, and intelligentization has brought about the price of small appliances MCUs. 
For example, Midea data shows that the number of MCU required for smart variable frequency refrigerators should be increased by more than 5. Because of the addition of temperature adjustment, Wi-Fi connection, intelligent display and other advanced functions, the number of MCUs in home appliances increases, and drives consumer MCUs to upgrade from 8 to 32. However, in the face of clear market expectations and cost control needs, Bai Power manufacturers often choose to embark on the road of self -developed MCU. According to the statistics of “Love Collection Micro”, brands such as beauty, Gree, Haier, Galanz, all have chips such as MCUs and other chips to be put into production or commissioning or or. In research. #[[May not necessarily be a few nano SOC#
In addition, smartphones, tablets, computers, and wearable devices have also provided space for the domestic MCU market growth. For example, Apple mobile phones will be equipped with a STM32 supporting NFC function. Smart watches and smart bracelets are usually equipped with a low -power MCU for communication and sensing. In recent years, the penetration rate has risen. It is also equipped with 1 MCU as the main control chip. 
Industrial -grade MCU: A more “grinding” road
Industrial -grade MCU has always been in an important position. Industrial robots, step motors, machine arms, instruments, industrial motors, industrial motor, industrial diesel engines, ventilator systems, energy gateway, motor drivers, and meters have made the industrial -grade MCU market wide.
In the industry, MCU mainly implements transmission control, collection signals, transmission data, and complex high -speed operations. Driven by the Industrial Internet of Things, many domestic companies have begun to expand their production lines and continue to launch low -power new products or special products.
But the industrial -grade MCU is a difficult and unpleasant road
Essence On the one hand, it is required to pay higher anti -static capabilities, anti -wave voltage, surge current capacity, working temperature range and life, and on the other hand, paying higher real -time processing capabilities and functional safety. Various pressures have caused the chip research and development process to be very “grinding”, testing the team’s technical precipitation.
Liang Lei, the technical market director of Fudan Microelectronics Electronics Division, introduced,
Industrial MCU chips generally have a life cycle of 10-15 years, and iterations are not as fast as consumer MCU
, And the core device is very cautious, the slow track business is not so easy to do; the product introduction also has a longer time window than the consumer MCU, which is relatively higher. “Qi”, devote himself to research and development.
According to data from the Foresight Industry Research Institute, since 2015, the industrial control MCU product market has shown a fluctuations in fluctuations. In 2020, the scale of industrial control for MCU products reached 2.6 billion yuan, and it is expected that the size of China’s industrial control MCU market in 2026 reached approximately 3.5 billion yuan. 
Auto -grade MCU: Gradually transfer to the mid -to -high -end from low -end
Recently, the entire MCU circle has drifted a strong “on the car”. Due to the relationship between supply and demand, the problem of car regulatory MCU out of stock will not be significantly relieved in the short term. At the same time, the demand for car regulatory MCUs is still rising, and it is also a good period for domestic manufacturers to enter. JW Insights predicts that due to the continued increase in the proportion of 32 -bit MCU applications with higher unit prices, the size of the automotive MCU market will continue to grow, and it is expected to increase from the current US $ 5.916 billion to US $ 8.878 billion in 2024. 
“The car regulations have the world” seem to have become the motto of the enterprise, and the high -safety standard products that can obtain cars must have high safety and reliability. But it is a pity that,
High -end product car MCU is still the world of overseas giants, with market share exceeding 95%
Essence In the global automotive MCU market in 2020, RENESAS, NXP, Infineon, TI and Microchip’s five major market share reached 86.6%.  There are only a few domestic manufacturers with car -level MCUs, but this also means that there is more room for development.
“The car regulating MCU has a high barrier in product definition, product design, and technical threshold. It must not only meet the requirements of complex indicators of stability, security, and reliability in the ISO 26262 certification. Profit. “Wang Chao, the technical market manager of Fudan Microelectronics Electronics Division, said that in 2021, there are indeed many car companies or component manufacturers to provide a window period for MCU companies. Essence How to push the product to the entire vehicle in the “window period”, and improving future share is a question worth thinking about.
Public information shows that 10 domestic (5 of them and 5 unbound) manufacturers have entered the automotive MCU field, including BYD Electronics, Jiefa Technology, Xinwangwei, Guoxin Technology, Xinhai Technology, Zhaoyi Innovation , Beijing Junzheng, Ziguang Guowei, Zhongying Electronics, Fudan Microelectronics. Among them, BYD Semiconductor, Setteou, Fudan Microelectronics and other MCUs have been shipped in batches. Zhaoyi Innovation, Guoxin Technology, and Xinhai Technology are in the customer import period.
On December 8, 2021, Fudan Microelectronics released the first MCU chip that passed the AEC-Q assessment; on December 24, 2021, Xinhai Technology Reinstalizing MCU chip; December 27, 2021, the automobile chip company flag Xinwei announced the completion of a new round of financing, and Xiaomi and SAIC entered the market. On December 28, 2021, the automotive electronic MCU company Xinwang Microelectronics announced the completion of hundreds of millions of C1 rounds of financing.
Different car MCUs are subdivided. The new domestic MCU players generally start with the control of the body and the internal environment of the car, and gradually transfer to the fields of battery management systems, automobile lighting, auxiliary driving and other fields. Taking the latest FM33 LG0XXA released by Fudani as an example, this product is mainly used for ETC, doors and windows, car lights, steering wheels, anti -theft, glass lifts, etc.
“I hope that each car we will drive in the future is a domestic chip. This is our goal. We find that domestic chips are not bad at all, but everyone has not really tapped it.” Fudan Microelectronics senior engineer, electricity electricity, electricity Zhai Jindang, general manager of the electronic business department, said.
Domestic MCU “inner roll”
There are more and more people who enter the game, and the increasingly fierce domestic MCUs have gradually shown the “inner volume” trend, and they also have the characteristics of “volume” …
The production line must be fully: no need, but not no
In terms of digits, the MCU includes 4, 8, 16, and 32 -bit. Currently 62%of products use 32 -bit products, 23%use 16 -bit products, 15%of 4/8 -bit products. In terms of system tasks, it is increasingly complicated, and the demand for computing power is getting higher and higher, which prompts the MCU to enter the 32 -bit era. “The products still have.
In terms of kernels, the “three-point world” pattern of ARM, RISC-V, and domestic self-developed IP has been formed. 
At present, the ARM kernel is the mainstream, and most of them are the Cortex-M series
Essence After visiting national technology, Hangshun, Zhaoyi Innovation, Huada Semiconductor, Qin Heng Microelectronics, it has been found that domestic MCU companies already have a complete production line of Cortex-M0/M0+/M4/M7/M33, which can allow allowed to make Users flexibly choose. The kernel directly determines the performance, power consumption, storage size, etc. of the MCU, and a more complete kernel can correspond to different solutions.
In order to meet more differentiated needs in the subdivided field, manufacturers have cast into the embrace of the new structure. At present, manufacturers such as Hangshun, Zhaoyi Innovation, Qinheng Microelectronics have deployed the RISC-V architecture to achieve the characteristic line of RISC-V single-core or RISC-V+ARM dual-core; The leader of the research architecture does not have the problem of chip IP authorization is one of the main advantages of its products.
From the perspective of application fields, domestic manufacturers are pursuing more common and strive to be more widely used. “As a general MCU, our market goal is ‘full flowering’, and the best effect can be exerted in any field.” National technology once told the author.
For the different markets of “melon”, the strategic pattern of domestic manufacturers has been amplified. Since the MCU can be used everywhere, there must be “tall and thin and thin”. In addition, “player rushing the market surge”, enterprises must continue to broaden the production line and slowly penetrate the low -end market after the low -end reputation.
The power consumption must be low: the design of the design, the pattern is opened
In the field of consumer electronics, the IoT terminals of wearable devices, smart homes and other batteries have strict requirements on power consumption. Only a longer standby can grasp the hearts of consumers. The more, the power that can be used for the MCU is not much.
In fact, the power consumption of the MCU also has a list similar to mobile phones. Embedded micro -processing benchmark association (EEMBC) has proposed two versions of ULPMARK standards to provide developers with methods that can reliably and reasonably measure the energy efficiency of micro -controllers. The corresponding scores will also be uploaded to EEMBC’s ULPMARK Running Rules.
Generally speaking, the kernel directly determines the overall power consumption, and the “sub -threshold circuit” design will be adopted in the MCU field to reduce power consumption. This design reduces the working voltage of the chip to near the crystal threshold, thereby reducing static leakage and dynamic power consumption.
MCU power consumption is divided into two parts: static leakage and dynamic power consumption. In order to reduce the leakage of the static leakage part, the power supply voltage can be reduced and the use of a low leakage standard unit design; in the dynamic power consumption part, the power supply voltage can be reduced or the circuit is invalidated to reduce the power consumption.
Integration and main frequency are also the main way for MCU manufacturers to regulate power consumption. Domestic manufacturers “do everything possible” to minimize power consumption, this data still has to be brushed.
Compatible must be strong: plug and play, replace more smoothly
Under the attraction of huge markets, domestic manufacturers generally adopt the form of PIN to Pin (pins), so that downstream users can be imported from foreign products to their own products faster. Compatibility directly affects whether customers can quickly replace foreign products, and different manufacturers have different choices.
The “compatibility” here refers to the more likely it is, the more likely it is to replace the alternative MCU. Domestic MCUs have four types: full compatibility, hardware compatibility, basic compatibility and incompatibility.
In order to quickly introduce customers, there will be some compatible products with hardware and registers in the market. There is no need to change any code, and it can work directly to work. However, this compatible product has neither threshold nor characteristic. The imitation of imitation also implies the risk of infringing intellectual property rights of others; hardware and tolerance refer to the power supply, clock, and reset, but the register is basically the same, but the registers are fine -tuned; basically they refer to the inconsistency of the register, the clock, reset, and the power supply individual pins are inconsistent. Products, customers need to redesign the circuit board; do not refer to the overall characteristics of the MCU, but the user design is more difficult.
Under the current situation of the market, the media once pointed out that in order to quickly enter the market and make fast money, some companies do full compatible products of register and survive with price advantages. This has formed a “price in the price”, which drives the price of MCU to continue to decline, and the result is not making money.
But in any case, the compatibility with foreign products must be the first factor that users consider, whether to maintain their own personality or follow the current. This is a problem. 
The problem of domestic MCU existence
Many first -line embedded engineers revealed to the author that when the core is slightly sorry, the company’s company launches the domestic alternative plan, asking engineers to test the replacement effect of various MCUs; there are also some companies “temporarily hug the Buddha’s feet”, only to wait for their own products to “play” bounced When you do your best “, you will think of finding an alternative.
In any case, after many tests, many replacement MCUs still have certain problems, causing the replacement of domestic plans to be put on hold or even give up.
There is cost replacement, it is difficult to say to love you
An embedded engineer who is on the front line says that the company’s benefits are directly linked to the project, and the time for engineers to find an alternative MCU is very short.
If a domestic MCU wants to be “flipped”, it is necessary
Essence “Product managers will consider whether developers can quickly complete the development during the product selection stage. If the development cycle is too long, even if this MCU supply is sufficient, it will face the fate of PASS,” he explained.
Although many domestic MCUs ran for the purpose of replacement and compatibility at the beginning of research and development, PIN to Pin’s benchmark or even “highly paid tribute”, but often engineers reported that they could not run, run flights during the running procedure, Bigrical issues.
During the development process, engineers will encounter many intricate problems, which greatly affects the development progress, and at the same time, it is a straight line of replacement costs.
There is resistance after sale, I love you, you don’t love me
“The after -sales call will never be connected. Even if it is turned on, the opposite side will always be judged as the engineer’s own problem.”
“Domestic MCU only focuses on promotion, but after -sales service is backward, not even simple technical support.”
“Some BUG technical support does not know how to solve it.”
“The richness of the information is very different from the large foreign manufacturers, but fortunately, there should be everything, and there is no one to mention it.”
Some engineers listed the after -sales difficulties of domestic MCU manufacturers to the author.
Of course, some engineers have different views. They believe that the quality of the domestic itself is really good, and they have never encountered after -sales problems, and foreign brands may not necessarily have humane after -sales service.
“The attitude of after -sales will also have a relationship with how much the customer needs to buy. If you can pick up thousands of customers at a time, it will inevitably be unobstructed, but if it is a personal developer or a small number of users, it is hard to say.” A senior MCU senior senior. ” The designer said.
It is difficult to develop, and there is no information on the problem
The problem of development data is the most serious problem that engineers reflected to the author
“Large foreign brands such as ST, even if they do not respond after -sales, we can find a lot of resources from the Internet, including development materials and seniors’ experience.
After all, domestic MCUs are more ‘young’, and many problems cannot be found online. Long -term squeezing by foreign brands, limited resources can be obtained, which has greatly increased our development difficulty
Some engineers also said that problems such as labeled errors and unclear explanation in the existing information of domestic MCUs have also increased the difficulty of development, which indirectly affects the development cycle. Many engineers have also missed the domestic MCU. “Opportunity.
“ST and other large foreign factories have been cultivating in China for many years. Among them, some embedded educators include foreign products in their own teaching tutorials or books, and even translated English manuals into Chinese in intimate ‘, so that Xiaobai can be in It is undoubtedly a virtuous circle to learn and make a sense of accomplishment at the learning stage. “The practitioner emphasized that domestic MCU products have no Chinese manual, let alone a video tutorial.
There are fluctuations in the market, contradictions and differences in supply and demand
Although the lack of core has become an important “empty window period” for domestic production, domestic manufacturers cannot escape the fate affected by upstream fluctuations. Geopolitical friction, epidemic and natural disasters have caused international logistics to be blocked, and raw material supply and packaging test capacity will affect the delivery of MCU.
Under the lack of cores, the terminal panic is preparation, resulting in a serious lack of 8 -inch wafer capacity, thereby exacerbating MCU manufacturers’ delivery period. At present, the consumer market’s MCU core is slightly alleviated, but the industry people are still not optimistic about the market. The MCU of the automotive market may last until the second half of 2022, all of which directly lead to significant market fluctuations.
Earlier, some spot vendors and traders stocking and raising prices caused some popular products to increase the price of more than 10 times, which caused extremely harsh negative effects on the market. With the rise of the market, domestic manufacturers once had a “low -cost grabbing order”, which led to intensified price fluctuations.
The lack of core is both a crisis and an opportunity. MCU companies have emerged in large numbers, and in this wave, the industry will inevitably usher in a new wave of winning and shuffling.
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Author: Fu Bin
This article comes from the fruit shell hard technology, and must not be reprinted without authorization.