Craftsman Workshop: Daojie Rookie Rui Fan Mamascus


Damascus Iron and Steel uses the two unique studies of smelting, hard and hard steel composite forging to achieve the effects of good hardness and toughness. The scenery is endless.


In the modern era of industry, many metallurgical factories and laboratories are optimistic about the broad prospects of knife steel and study the method of industrially manufacturing Damascus steel. In the 1990s, a Swedish metallurgical factory combined with tool manufacturer, using fast sintering powder metallurgical technology to produce a pattern, performance simulation of the effect of composite forging Damascus Steel, and enhanced rust resistance, both in terms of performance and appearance It can be comparable to the traditional hand forging Damascus Steel. This is Swedish powder steel, referred to as Ruiman, also known as Ruiman Damascus.

What is Rui Fan

Rui Fan is a pattern pattern made of rapid sintering powder metallurgical technology. It belongs to Damascus steel, which is produced in a broad sense. Because it is produced in Sweden, it is called Swedish powder steel, referred to as Ruilin.

There are many high -quality iron mines in northern Sweden, which have always been known for their steel manufacturing industry. Its metallurgical technology is the world’s leading level.


In 1992, Swedish Erasteel began to try to develop Damascus pattern pattern with powder metallurgy technology. EraSteel and the United States Corporation jointly hold patents of fast sintering powder metallurgical technology. ERASTEEL’s main production tool steel, high -speed steel, Damascus pattern research and development mainly aims for tool steel and jewelry steel markets.


In 1994, Per Billgren, the employee of ERASTEEL company, and Kaj Embretsen, a tool maker Kaj Embretsen, jointly developed a method of manufacturing high alloy Damascus pattern steel through powder metallurgy technology to successfully produce a new generation of powder layered, high temperature and high pressure (1200 air pressure) solidarity. Powder-welded welded powder Damascus knife stainless steel and won the annual innovation award of EPMA-Conference in Paris.

In 1995, ERASTEEL authorized its subsidiary, the current famous Swedish factory Damasteel began to produce powder Damascus Steel. The part of the powder metallurgy is completed by Erasteel, and the forging part of the forging type and pattern molds is completed by Damasteel. Since then, the rookie of the knife industry has been born and loved by many tool manufacturers and collectors. In the field of pattern knives, there are a situation of coexistence of hand -forging Damascus knives and Ruiman Damascus knife.

The difference between Ruiman and traditional Damascus steel


Traditional Damascus steel refers to patterns made by folding forging, welding, and molding. This craftsmanship can be traced back to the origin of Damascus Knife, Persian Mamascus. At that time, the Persians used the Uz steel (a kind of steel steel) produced by India to make the earliest Damascus knife through a composite forging of hard and hard materials.

The principle of modern Damascus is the same as that of the traditional Damascus knife. Although it has improved the tools, it still follows the tradition of hand -made. Hand -made Damascus Steel is still high -carbon steel in essence and poor rust resistance.


Swedish powder steel is a kind of stainless steel produced by powder metallurgical manufacturing process. It is a composite steel composed of two or more (generally two types) steel. The layered is completed in the anaerobic environment in the early stages of powder production, and the welding of the layer is solid in high temperature and high -pressure process (HIP) in anaerobic environment. The accurate ratio of various element powder first ensures its strong rust resistance, and then the smelting and manufacturing characteristics of powder steel can ensure the overall strength and inter -layer strength to the greatest extent.


The production process of Rui Fan Steel

Rui powder uses fast sintering powder metallurgical technology to replace manual forging. Under vacuum, it is sprayed with powder to achieve composite processing of steel.

First spray the steel water through the nozzle in a vacuum environment. During the gas atomization process, steel water was sprayed by inert gas into small metal droplets, condensed into small steel beads with high levels of cleanliness. After the atomization process, collect the powder in the tank, seal it, and then compact the static pressure (HIP) by heat. HIP is a process that derives gas atomized metal powder through the combination of high pressure and high temperature. The HIP process is performed in the HIP furnace, where the gas pressure is evenly played in all directions, providing equal static properties and 100 % density, and the steel balls are sintered into type and melted into large -size cylindrical steel.

This new type of metallurgical technology has many advantages compared with ordinary metallurgical technology, such as fast, uniform alloy crystals, small size, great increase in strength, stable steel structures, and so on.

After the bottom plate of the Rui powder steel of Erasteel is ready, the forging part of the forging and patterns of the pattern is completed by DAMASTEEL.

By twisting and forging rolling, the steel forging is appropriate. The next step is mold forging, with a specific shape of molds (common is dots and horizontal molds), forging the bumps on the board. Because the inside of the Swissan foundation steel plate is layered, the inside of the pattern forged by the mold is also layered. The convex on the board is the pattern on the surface of the steel plate we are familiar with. Finally, the pattern will be clearer. The picture below is the most commonly used mold forging mold. The horizontal mold is made of Audin pattern, and the dot mold is made of small rose patterns.


Rui Fan’s internal structure

Ruifan includes a special martensite stainless steel Malaysia, Malaysian stainless steel Malaysia made of jewelry, high -pressure suppression of barrel steel, low -alloy barrel steel, RWL34 single powder tool steel, etc.

The common domestic martyl stainless steel Malaysia, Austenite stainless steel Malaysia and RWL34 monomer powder steel.

The two steels used to produce Ruiman Damascus steel are RWL34 and PMC27.

RWL34 is named after Robert W Loveless, a world -renowned knife manufacturer. It is a improved version of the improved version of the famous knife steel 154cm. RWL34 has extremely high strength and toughness, especially easy to maintain mirror polishing and sharp maintenance, and is welcomed by the majority of tool manufacturers.

Another component PMC27 is the powder version of the famous knife and steel 12C27 of SANDVIK Sweden. It is low in RWL34 and high toughness. It is mostly used as jewelry materials.


The two components of Ruiman Malaysia are extremely good, and the combination of the two materials is very close. Therefore, Ruiman Malaysia has become the most scientific and technological content and the most advanced metallurgical technology Damascus stainless steel.

Rui Fan’s performance

The advantages of the Ruolin steel implemented by powder metallurgy technology lies in the rapid crystallization of the alloy. The molecular arrangement is more tight, uniform, small in size, large in size, and the steel structure is stable. There is no gray between steel, tight forging, and so on. Therefore, compared with ordinary steel, the performance has improved a lot, and the most important thing is that it is not easy to rust. The picture below is a comparison of micro -photos of ordinary smelting steel and powder metallurgy steel, showing the size of the crystal.

On the left is the structure of ordinary steel, which is several times zoomed in. The right side is Ruolin steel, which is uniform and tight.


Ruifan Malaysia Stainless Steel Malaysia, usually known as Ruifan Malaysia Knife Steel. After proper heat treatment, it can ensure good toughness, the hardness can reach HRC60-62, and it has excellent strength, rust resistance, resistance to resistance, resistance Grattan.


The Ruifan Aurona Stainless Steel Malaysia, also known as Ruiman Malaysia’s head jewelry, has low hardness and considerable ductility, which can be cold -rolled and carried. Without heat treatment, the hardness is HRC25-30, which is very resistant to corrosion and does not contain nickel without allergies.


How to distinguish Rui Fan and Damascus Steel


As soon as people mention Damascus Steel, what is referred to is the Damascus Steel, which is forged by hand. Hand forging Damascus is expensive handicrafts. As the close relatives of Damascus Steel, Rui Fan is not inferior to traditional Damascus Steel in performance and patterns. However, as a handicraft, Damascus Iron and Steel, which is still hand -forged, is more popular. How to distinguish between the two?

Traditional Damascus steel is a folding forging process to stack the hard and hard steel together heated, folded, forged, and process it into a composite alloy steel. The biggest advantage is that it has both hardness and toughness. In addition, the pattern formed by forging is naturally smooth, but it is not repeated. Through careful observation, you will find that the front and back of a knife, even the different areas of the same side, seem to be the same pattern, in fact, there are slight differences, just like the painter’s painting works, affected by random factors. It can be said that each hand forging Damascus is unique. The picture below is a combined hunter produced by the craftsmanship.

Rui Fan Malaysia is a crystalline material. Another most prominent difference is patterns. The pattern of the Ruifan is made of crystallization, which is more regular and neat. It can be set arbitrarily, and it can be produced in batches and large -scale production. At the same time, the surface of Ruifan steel will have obvious convex and concave feel. In the Ruifan knife blade, there will also be similar patterns to the knife surface. If you look at the process, if you open the blade and then sour, the blade will present a relatively complete and obvious pattern. If you pick up the blade first, the pattern of the blade mouth may not be clearly appeared.

Reference materials:

Craftsman Workshop “Simple History of Damascus Sword”


Jean M. Hoffman “Damascus Steels from Powder Metal”


Larry Conneelley “Damasteel® vs. Damascus Steel -Explaining The Materials”


“Hardenable Stainless Damascene Steel, 93X.X”


CustomTacticals Knife Encyclopedia / FAQ website “Damasteel Damascus Stainless Steel for Knife Blades”

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