Chongqing lacquerware 艺 decoration skills
Chongqing lacquerware 艺 decoration skills
Chongqing is located in the southwestern region of China. It belongs to the subtropical monsoon climate and is humid and foggy. It is conducive to the growth of lacquer trees. It is one of the areas with large natural lacquer production and good quality in the country and even the world. “Huayang Guozhi · Ba Zhi” contains “Bab” to produce Danzhu and raw paint. Raw lacquer resources provide a rich material guarantee for the development of Chongqing lacquer art. Not only that, Chongqing is suitable for the natural dryness of natural lacquer, and has climate conditions suitable for the application of traditional lacquerware. Chongqing lacquer art has a long history. It originated from Shang and Zhou, developed in Qin and Han, and flourished in the Sui and Tang Dynasty. After the establishment of the Song, Ming and Qing dynasties, the development of the People’s Republic of China was twisted.
Shen Fuwen paint paintings “Carp”
Archaeologists concluded according to the inscription of the lacquerware unearthed from the ancient tomb of Guanghan: “Bashu” lacquer art can be traced back to the Shang and Zhou era as early as the Shang and Zhou Dynasty. Chongqing Ba County (now Banan District) “Pakistan” lacquerware, boats, and coffins unearthed in winter bamboo shoots. The texture is mostly wooden tires. Some have copper feet, copper cover, or hoop. This kind of lacquerware with metal reinforcement is called “buckle”. “Said the text” records: buckle, gold jewelry mouth. The thin gold, silver pieces, and copper slices are built on the edge of the lacquer box, which is combined with the lacquerware, which is both firm and beautiful.
During the Warring States Period, the development of lacquerware craftsmanship was mainly manifested in the generation of tire craftsmanship. The tire craftsmanship is on the fetal bone model. It is layer by layer to mount anesthesia cloth, scraped the ash, and removes the mold after drying, and forms a tire (now referred to as reborn). Decoration technology is mostly used for gold and silver and painted.
The East Han lacquerware found in Wushan Maiyu Cemetery includes lacquer components, tray, round shallow lacquer plate, lacquer lacquer, lacquer lacquered chess piece (black lacquer wooden tire) and so on. Historical cultural relics show that the early Chongqing lacquerware craftsmanship has been inlaid, painted and golden buckles, paint decoration methods, decorative decoration methods, and so on.
The Sui and Tang dynasties are the peak period of traditional culture in my country, and it is also a period when traditional lacquerware craftsmanship is blooming and compelling. There are many types of relics in the Tang Dynasty in the Masakura Institute of Japan, including Gold and Silver Pinchi, Gold and Silver Tongzhuang Tang Dao.
From the Song Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, from the literature, the wood and lacquerware were one of them. Most of the folk lacquer arts were attached to the furniture and construction industry. There were no special industries. Coffin, plaque and other decorative lacquer art. The crafts are: carving, inlaid, filling, gold, gold, paint (degenerate paint) and so on. The production process is: to the bottom of the silk, use gold powder and silver powder to depict characters, birds, beasts, flowers, and inscriptions.
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the development of Chongqing lacquer art has experienced several declines due to historical reasons. In the early days of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Baiye was full of prosperity, and the Gongchang was honored. Chongqing lacquer art was fully restored and developed. In 1956, the Test Factory of Sichuan Academy of Fine Arts was officially established. From 1975 to 1985, the Ministry of Light Industry decided to restore the production of Chongqing lacquer art. Old artists Huang Chunrong, Chen Si Bi, Zhang Tingrong, Wang Zhihua, Zhu Yijun, Liu Shuzhen, Zhang Shuyao and other academic workers learned the lacquer skills. After 30 years of hard work, the traditional craftsmanship for many years has been fully inherited and protected again. In 1982, it resumed Chongqing art lacquerware factory. However, in 2000, a 4,000 -square -meter plant in the Chongqing Art Lacquer Water Factory was forced to sell debts and interrupted production. In 2001, due to the historical responsibility of the inheritance of Chongqing lacquer art, Gao Yuping, the former employee of the Chongqing Fine Arts Lacquer Factory, re -funded the rental house to find the old artist Liu Shuzhen, Cheng Tiande, Wang Zongxiu, etc. Production of lacquer art. Chongqing lacquer ware decorative skills are now mainly distributed in Yuzhong District of Chongqing, Shapingba District, Jiulongpo District, Dadukou District, Chengkou County and other places.
Chongqing lacquerware craftsmanship has exquisite skills and excellent works. From the 1950s to the early 1960s, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe were mainly exported to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. They also participated in the international cultural exchange activities of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. Some works also presented foreign prime ministers and international friends as national ceremonies. In recent years, some works have won international and national awards many times, and dozens of lacquer art works have been collected by the Chinese Palace Museum, China Arts and Crafts Museum and other units. “Goldfish Betting Paint Plate” and “Eggshell Ending Phoenix Pan” have won bronze and silver awards in the two World Youth Gala Fine Arts competitions. “Flower Cylons”, “Double Lion Plum Box”, “Eggshell inlaid Wishes to Life”, “Eggshell inlaid Magic Smoke Smooth”, “Gold Painting Sugar Box”, “One Mings Amazing”, “Fengming Flower Fragrance”, “Three Gorges”, “Three Gorges” Published in the “People’s Pictorial”, “Chinese Construction”, “Decoration”, “Chinese Arts and Crafts Museum Collection” and the “Chinese Arts and Crafts Series · Chinese Lacquer Water Chapter 1 · Sichuan lacquerware” jointly compiled by China and Japan and other domestic and foreign books And many times have been selected for international and national -level exhibitions.
There are many types of paintings in Chongqing, mainly in transparent paint, black lacquer, thick lacquer, bright light paint, golden foot paint, fast -drying paint, etc. Its process products involve several categories and hundreds of varieties such as daily necessities, entertainment supplies, decorative supplies, tourism products, ornamental collections and weapons. The process is complex and fine, with dozens of processes such as tires, paint, decoration, and polishing.
The ancient utensils of Chongqing lacquer ware are mainly divided into: daily necessities, such as hanging screens, screens, a few, cases, tables, stools, chairs and other furniture, various ear cups, spoons, dishes, dishes, bowls and other tea sets, wine utensils, tableware and crickets, crickets, and crickets,, and crickets, crickets, and crickets,, and crickets, crickets, crickets, and crickets,, and crickets, crickets, crickets, and crickets,, and crickets, crickets, crickets, and crickets,, and crickets, crickets, and pupae,, crickets, crickets, and pupae,, crickets, crickets, and pupae, and pupae, and pupae, and pupae, and pupae, and pupae, and puppets. Boxes and other utensils; entertainment supplies, such as piano, seli, 竽, blog tools, etc.; Weapons, such as shields, bows, tadpoles, arrows, gays, swords, crossbow, ga, spear, etc. Paint wares and paint paintings.
Based on the inheritance of traditional products, modern lacquerware has opened up some new products suitable for modern society. According to its purpose, it is mainly divided into daily life products, tourist souvenirs, furnishings, ornamental collectors and building decoration decorations. Boxes, cigarette tea and wine utensils, utensils, hanging screens, lacquer paintings, vases, reincarnation paint, painted portrait, door, table, etc.
The ancients Yun “no paint is not made, the fetus is the body, and the paint is the soul.” Chongqing lacquer art is very particular about lacquer. Chongqing lacquer tire shape is divided into: Xia Bu’s fetal, wooden tires, presses, bamboo tires, skin tires, paper tires. Each fetal shape has several processes. For example, if Xia Bu is born, after using a clay sculpture model, use gypsum into a mold. Put the rough ash, medium ash, and finally fine ash. The reborn process was first invented by the Shu people, and it started during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. In Chongqing, lacquer arts have generally used the reborn process. The modern paint lacquerware has the “Sun Disk” of Shen Fuwen, which was collected by the art museum, and presented Prince Sihanouk’s “Carp Drive”, “Packing Painted Disar Ear Ring Big Flower Bottle”, “Packing Pain Dipping Dip”, etc. Anti -born statue, Chairman Mao’s rebirth, etc. These are the outstanding representatives of Chongqing lacquer art.
Chongqing lacquerware has complicated craftsmanship. During the production process, it is required to master the paint. Three changes a day, but also “three degrees” (temperature, humidity, dryness). Generally, dozens of procedures such as design, tiremaking, gray, paint, polishing, decoration, polishing (repeated multiple times), etc., have a long -term consumption and are known as “hundreds of work”. Chongqing lacquer art was deeply studying ancient culture and unearthed cultural relics, and resumed development. Focusing on the grinding paintings of Shen Lao, there are also production processes such as lacquer paint painting, silver drawing gold hand -painted, printed paint gold, painted paint -changing, and colorful eggshell inlay. Among the many Chongqing lacquerware production technology, it is especially famous for its traditional techniques such as grinding painted paint, gold and silver pink light cover, colorful eggshell inlaid, tires, and pile paint statues.
Guling painting is originally created by Shen Fuwen, an expert in lacquer art. The process process is: after painting on the bottom tire, sprinkle gold, silver powder, fill the powder, fill in the lotus, and then stick it. Essence The subtlety is the painting, which requires the dense and light and grinding method. The layers of lacquer wares made of such techniques are endlessly changing, elegant and rich, and bright as new. The “Golden Fish Disk”, which won the bronze award of the World Youth Gala, is one of the masterpieces of Chongqing lacquerware in the 1950s. Two goldfish and stems of water grass are depicting the lights, and the composition is appropriate. The dark paint plate looks like a clear water. The fish is in it.
Shen Fuwen’s work “Dunhuang Pattern Practical Platform Painted Disk”
The colorful egg shell inlay process is a unique skill founded by Master Chen Si Bi on the basis of my country’s traditional craftsmanship. It is decorated with color transparent decorations on the painting tire according to the plan, so that the entire inlaid pattern is more simple and bright on the basis of the changes in the egg shell ice pattern mechanism. Use eggshell instead of traditional white to solve the problem of yellowing. The “Eggshelling Phoenix Panca” made in this technique won the silver award in the 6th World Youth Gala in 1957. The white and light green maps on the plate are made of fine -grained eggshells. The central phoenix composition is rigorous. It has the Han Dynasty heritage and is considered a treasure. In addition, this technique won the second prize of Sichuan lacquerware design and improvement in 1959.
Gold and silver powder spending method is another new technique developed on the basis of grinding and painting. It is characterized by the full use of Chongqing’s unique transparent paint, and carefully depicts fish scales with gold and silver powder. The fishtail is vivid. It has a deep and mysterious implicit beauty to achieve an infinite state of virtual and refined. His masterpiece “Goldfish Betting Paint Plate” won the Bronze Award of the Fifth World Youth Gala.
Color painting is used to use Chongqing’s unique transparent paint. According to the decoration, different materials and different processes need to be painted. The patterns are clear, looming, and implicit. It can be described as “thousands of texts and thousands of Chinese, it is difficult to win.” The masterpieces “Morning” and “Round Hanging Disk” are collected in the Chinese Craft Treasure Museum.
The silver drawing hand -painted technique uses color paint lines to draw the lines, draws the decoration, and then enters the yin. It is just right to dry. The lines are pasted on the lines, silver foil, or monochrome, or multi -color. The amount of paintings dipped in paint will directly affect the quality of the lines: less dipping, disconnecting and continuing; too much dipping, you will cross the strokes and flow around. After coloring the color hidden painting, coordination is soft, bright and pleasant.
Representative inheritors introduction
Chen Si Bi, Han nationality, born in 1924, Chongqing, the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage project lacquer ornaments (Chongqing lacquerware decoration skills) representative inheritors, master of Chinese arts and crafts. In the 1940s, Chen Sibi graduated from the five -year lacquerware professional undergraduate of the Sichuan Art College, and then worked in the practice of teaching lacquer wares, arts and crafts and lacquerware for decades. The first lacquerware “color egg shell inlaid technique”. Her work composition is tight and refined, showing extremely high artistic accomplishments; her work is unique, rich and exquisite, fresh, clever, novel, and full of sense of the times. The works have won many international and domestic awards. Representative works include “Eggshelling Polying Pan”, “Silver Silk Hundred Flowers Wine”, “Eggshell Phoenix Pattern”, “Eggshell Embeds Peacock Disk”, and “Lacquer Painting Three Gorges” and so on.
Liu Shuzhen, Han nationality, born in 1935, Chongqing, the first batch of intangible cultural heritage projects in Chongqing, the lacquerware decorative skills (Chongqing lacquerware decoration skills) representative inheritors, Chongqing arts and crafts master. Can be proficient in “grinding painting” stunt, use special materials according to different themes, and use special means such as embedded, quotation, scattered, covered, grinding, etc. to form a special picture effect. In 1986, his work “Golden Fish Hanging Screen” won the excellent award of craftsmanship in the National Arts and Crafts Exhibition. In 1991, “Carp Play Water” won the award at the Chongqing Arts and Crafts Exhibition. In 2006, “Freedom” was in the seventh Chinese arts and crafts The master’s work and handmade art boutique faced awards. In 2007, “Qunle” won the Chongqing Crafts and Crafts Exhibition Silver Award.
Liu Shuzhen draws a golden fish plate
Cheng Tiande, Han nationality, born in 1947, Chongqing, the first batch of intangible cultural heritage projects in Chongqing, the lacquerware decorative skills (Chongqing lacquerware decoration skills) representative inheritors, Chongqing arts and crafts master. Familiar with the “grinding painting” stunt, it can use special materials according to different themes, and use a variety of special means to form a special picture effect. On the basis of traditional skills, he successfully tried “colorful change” lacquer painting. In 2006, his work “Shancheng Road” won the “Hundred Flower Cup” Silver Awards of the Chinese Arts and Crafts Master. In 2007, “Thousand Hands Guanyin” won the silver award of the “Golden Phoenix” Innovation Product Design Grand Prix.
Gao Yuping Girl, Han nationality, born in 1964, Chongqing, the first batch of intangible cultural heritage projects in Chongqing, the lacquerware trimming skills (Chongqing lacquerware trimming skills) representative inheritors, Chongqing arts and crafts master. In 1985, he entered the Chongqing art lacquerware factory to learn lacquerware decorative skills. In the traditional grinding painting process production process, she focuses on a combination of various processes. She can use different methods such as plain -colored inlaid, color inlay, positive and negative inlaid, and diverse style inlaid to make the lacquerware produce different texture, cracks and textures. In 2003, the cooperative work “People’s Auditorium” won the first prize of the 3rd Tourism Product Design Award; in 2006, “Confusion” won the bronze award of the 7th Chinese World Expo Arts and Crafts Master “Baihua Cup”; in 2008, “Wujiang Gallery “Won the bronze award of Chongqing Arts and Crafts Exhibition.
Zhu Hua, Han nationality, born in 1952, Chongqing, Chongqing’s first batch of intangible cultural heritage projects for lacquerware (Chongqing lacquerware decorative skills) representative inheritors, Chongqing master of arts and crafts. In 1971, Teacher Chen Si Bi, a master of Chinese arts and crafts, learned the lacquerware decorative skills, and was proficient in all the processes of lacquer ornamental skills. On the basis of the traditional basis, her works have improved the artistic expression of “colorful eggshell inlaid”, and innovated the “color dusual techniques” that combined snail powder and color lighting. In 1991, “Fengming Flower Fragrance Pain” won the “Hundred Flowers Awards” and other awards; in 2007, the works “The Spring” and “National Sex Scenery” won the 42nd international tourism and crafts “Golden Phoenix”, respectively. Bronze Awards and “Golden Phoenix” Outstanding Award.
Zhan Shuan, a Han nationality, was born in 1941. He was born in Wuyuan County, Jiangxi. The second batch of intangible cultural heritage projects in Chongqing, the lacquerware trimming skills (Chongqing lacquerware decoration skills) representative inheritors. From the well -known lacquer artist Shen Fuwen, he was proficient in the entire process of choosing from lacquer materials to lacquerware production, and deeply understood the Chinese natural lacquer material system. His works focus on painting. Based on the traditional lacquerware decorative skills, you can use the unique color and material advantages of Chinese lacquer materials to make the work have a distinctive personal style. In 1972, under the guidance of Mr. Shen Fuwen, he completed the production of large -scale paint paintings “Long March”. His works have participated in the exhibition and won awards.
Zhan Shu’an lacquerware works
Excerpt from: Chongqing Cultural and Tourism Research Institute’s “Bamboo Guping Qiao” in the series of non -material cultural heritage series
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