Gratitude spirit in traditional Chinese culture
Author: Professor of the National College of Renmin University of China, doctoral supervisor Han Xing
General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that with the joint efforts of the whole country and the general public, the national epidemic prevention and control situation continues to improve and accelerate the recovery of production and life. Essence In the fight against the epidemic, we witnessed too much touching moments, especially the medical staff desperately treating the patient and the true feelings of the patient’s heart, explaining the true meaning of gratitude to the world.
Thanksgiving is the traditional virtue of the Chinese nation. When it comes to gratitude, many people often think that it is a western imported product. The word “gratitude” is closely related to Christian Thanksgiving Day. In fact, our Chinese culture has a long time ago, especially Confucianism. In Chinese text, “feeling, moving.” (“Said the text • Heart”) The movement is sensing, the feeling must be, the sense of recovery, the two -way interaction, the sense of intercourse, all things, everything It is all through, so things between heaven and earth form a unified whole connection in this cyclical dynamic process. “Well, Hui Ye.” (“Said the text • Heart”) In addition, “Guangyun · Trace”: “Well, Enze Ye, Hui Ye.” Also: “Well, love also.” Enze, love. “Book of Rites · Four Systems”: “Eh, benevolent.” Kong Yingda: “Energy belongs to benevolence”, which is a manifestation of grace. The word “gratitude” is the meaning of being grace. Related documents such as “Three Kingdoms · Wu Zhi · Luo Tong Biography”: “All the orders are grateful to Dai Yi, and the heart of the desire.” Dyeing the heavens and the earth. “Into the Eunde is the basic morality of being a man. You can’t feel the virtue, know the grace, or give revenge, and report to virtue, that is, a villain, or even a beast. Confucianism is distinguished by people, birds, and gentlemen and villains.
Thanksgiving is the traditional virtue of the Chinese nation. It contains deep gratitude in traditional culture. It is clear and clear. “Reported non -gentlemen”, abandoned “the person who forgotten the righteousness”, and hate “the revenge of the revenge”. There are also many true love poems, expressing gratitude, such as “Book of Songs · Guofeng · Weifeng · Papaya”:
I cast me papaya and report it to Qiong. The bandit also thinks it forever!
I voted for Mu Tao and reported to Qiong Yao. The bandit also thinks it forever!
I voted for Mu Li and reported to Qiong. The bandit also thinks it forever!
At the same time, in our culture, gratitude also includes many specific aspects.
First, be grateful to the world, parents.
In Confucianism, individuals have parents who are born, and humans also have “big parents” with all things, namely the world. “Shang Shu · Tai Oath”: “Only the heavens and the earth, the parents of all things; People are grateful for their parents and developed filial piety as the foundation of benevolence; people are grateful to the great parents of the world, and have developed from the affection of relatives to “benevolence and love”. Zhang Zai wrote in “Ximing”: “It is called a father, Kun is called the mother; My compatriots; things, I and also. “Zhu Xi’s” Ximing Jie “said,” One of the people is born of a parent, but the reason why parents are parents are the Qiankun. ; If the Qiankun is concerned, everything will be the same parents … … The ancient gentlemen only saw that the truth was true, so they kissed and benevolent, benevolent and loved things, so that they could use the world as the world. One family, China is one person, not intentional. “In other words, in addition to the parents of birth, there are parents of heaven and earth. The parents of this heaven and earth are the theoretical basis of” being able to take the world as one family and China “. Origin from “Book of Rites · Rites”: “Therefore, the saints are resistant (capable) to take the world as one family, and China as one person.
“Zhou Yi · Qian Gua · Xiang Chuan” said: “Tian Xingjian, gentleman continues to strengthen; terrain Kun, gentleman with thick morals.” , Self -improvement in personal cultivation. With the thick and smooth nature represented by Kun, the gentleman is like the earth, treating people with a thick virtue. “Zhou Yi · Qian Gua · Biography” said: “Da Yi Qianyuan! The beginning of 10,000 supplies is the heaven. . Diger changes, each of which is right. ” Streaming and condensing has become a form of all categories, and it is its function. It is the energy of the universe light from beginning to end. The process of growth, development, and changes contains six -bit procedures to form the role of the universe, just like the six dragons run the royal body. Due to the changes in the lane, everything has its own life, which maintains the harmony and consistency of the original state, which is more conducive to the virginity. From ancient times to the present, everything has grown, and Kun’s body has endured the laws of heaven and all the students. Its morality is large and even reached the boundless territory, and it contains the large and great functions of Hongbo, which makes 10,000 categories grow. In addition, Kun Dao also has straight, square, and big three virtues. “The Golden Mean” and the way of heaven and earth: “The way of heaven and earth, Bo Ye, thick, high, Mingye, Youye, long.”
It is born of the heaven and earth, living between heaven, and of course gratitude to the heavens and the earth. Thanks for the world, cover me, raise me, raise me to raise me, give birth to me, and further form the most distinguished thoughts of people in traditional Chinese culture. “Filial Scripture · Shengzhi Zhang” said: “The nature of the heavens and the earth is noble.” The word “sex” in this sentence means “life”. The Song people Xing Yan explained: “Sex, birth also. The birth of the heavens and the earth, but the most expensive.” Ignorance, beasts and beasts are knowledgeable and unreasonable. Why is the most noble truth in all things in the world. “Book of Rites · Rites” believes: “People, the virtues of the heavens and the earth, the intersection of yin and yang, the meeting of the ghosts and gods, and the exception of the five elements.” In all things in the world, people have outstanding value. The spirit of all things that can create and be able to develop self -development. Dong Zhongshu said: “Tiande Shi, Ethics, human morality. In the weather, under the earth, the popularity is in the meantime … so it is not good at qi, not rich to the earth, not the heavens. Those who are not expensive. ” Essence Therefore, we must be grateful for all things in the world.
Thanks for parents. “Filial Sutra · Kaizong Mingyi Zhang” pointed out: “The body is skin -skinned, and the parents of the body dare not destroy, and the filial piety is from the beginning.” Basic requirements. “The Book of Songs · Xiaoya 蓼》” is very moving to express the gratitude of the children’s gratitude to the parents: “Mourning parents, giving birth to me … sad parents, giving birth to me … Ju me. 拊 I have me, and grow me. If I take me back, I will return to me. I want to report the virtue, Haotian is extremely. “Poor parents! In order to raise me to suffer. Poor parents! In order to raise me to accumulate hardships. Father, gave birth to me. Mother, raise me. To soothe me, love me, feed me, educate me, take care of me, care for me, come in and hold me. I want to repay my parents’ grace, and the parents of my parents are still endless. This poem is the poem of the filial piety as a filial son. From the perspective of ethics, it shows that the reason why the children should filial piety are to repay the parent’s life; from emotion, this is still the “kiss” feeling of blood; especially reflects a valuable gratitude feelings Essence “The Analects of Confucius · Yang Shin” slaughtered me three years of funeral and put forward the opinions of shortening the funeral period. Confucius asked me to slaughter me. If the three -year funeral was shortened to one year, you can eat rice after the death of your parents. Can you wear Jinyi, can your heart be safe? I did not hesitate to answer “Ann” without hesitation, which made Confucius speechless for a while, making Confucius aware of the lack of gratitude to my parents, and could not keep filial piety for three years to return to my parents’ raising. After slaughtering me out, he said to other disciples that slaughtered me “unkind”. Therefore, Liu Xiang “Talking Garden · Xiu Wen” said this question: “Three years of childbirth, and then exempt from the parents’ arms, so the funeral is three years, so it is also reported to the parents of the parents.” Write a poem “You Ziyin”: “The mother’s hands are in the middle, the Youzi body is shirt. The dense seam is densely sew, and I am afraid to return later. Can’t be the affection of the spring sun. Metaphor of parents’ kindness is heavy and it is difficult to repay. If a person does not even know the parents who raise themselves, how can they be grateful for others? Inheriting and carrying forward the fine traditional virtues such as respecting parents in Chinese traditional culture, gratitude, and repaying parents’ breeding, etc., it has a role that cannot be ignored in the current gratitude education.
Second, thank you teacher.
Chinese traditional culture has always been a good tradition of respecting teachers, “Zhou Li · Di Guan · Datu”: “Four is the Confucian Confucianism.” Zheng Xuan Note: It is Confucianism who carried out morality and ritual education in the people. Because the teachers and Confucianism teach people, there are respect for teachers, and on the basis of respecting teachers, they can be relieved. “Xunzi · Da Lue” cloud: “The country will be happy, the noble teacher will be the best, the country will be declining, the master will be a cheap teacher and the lightness.” “Mandarin · Jin Languchi”: “People are born in three, things are like one. The foundation of the person; the ancestor, the foundation of the class; the monarch, the root of the rule. There is no world of evil? No ancestor is evil? No monarch is evil? Equipment is the heavenly, the land is the same, and the ancestor is the three books of the ancestor. “It is also the three books of the ceremony.” The teacher mentioned the position of side by side with the heaven and earth and the monarchs, and basically formed the concept of “the king of heaven and the earth”. Mr. Qian Mu, a well -known master of Chinese studies, pointed out: “The five characters of” Tian Di Jun’s pro -teacher “, I saw the Xunzi book. In the next two thousand years, the five characters are deeply rooted in the hearts of the people and are often verbal. Its meaning in Chinese culture and Chinese life Everbright, you can imagine. “Lu Xun’s” The last editor of Jie Ting’s essay · My First Master “:” The center of the main house of my house is provided with a tablet, and the five digits must be absolutely respectful and obedient with gold: ‘Tiandi Jun’s pro -teacher’. “” Heaven and Earth Jun Kou Teacher “has become a traditional belief in the history of the Chinese, which reflects the value of valuable concepts such as respecting heaven, filial piety, loyalty, patriotism, and respect for teachers. Master Duan Zhengyuan, a modern folk Confucian Confucianism, said: “Parents are raising, where no parents come from; teachers are in the mouth, and no teacher teach, then the spirituality of the facial features, how can they practice. , Those who dare not forget. If you do n’t forget the teacher, you will repeat it. So you can report to your parents. ” Therefore, “the love of teachers and students love each other is like the relationship between father and son” (“Teacher’s Management”). Therefore, a person must be filial to his parents and respect the teacher. This is the basic requirement of human beings.
Third, the couple’s kindness.
The relationship between the couple is a special feeling. From strange to acquaintance to becoming a family, young men and women are accompanied by their lives and morals. Because the couple does not have a natural relationship with blood, the difference is very different. It is very difficult to stay with each other for life. The ancients believed that the heavens and the earth were in the same thing, and the relationship between the couple was originally good. The key to the couple’s Lun is a “love”. If there is no special feelings to maintain it, they will quarrel and fight lightly, and they will divorce their piety. Junchen and friends. Because family is social cells, the harmony and stability of the family is directly related to the harmony and stability of society. Confucianism believes that in addition to emotions, the relationship between the couple is still respectful, and love is like a paint, and respecting each other is the ideal relationship of the traditional couple. “Poetry” cloud: “Wife is good, such as drums.” “White Tiger Tong” said: “Wife, Qi Ye, from the husband, from the emperor to the people, the righteousness is one.” You Yun: “What is the couple? The husband helps, and support it with the Tao. The woman’s service also, yield with etiquette.” This can be said to be the meaning of cooperating with each other. The couple can only be dependent on each other. Home and everything are happy, Fuzawa is long. As the saying goes, “one day husband and wife hundreds of days”, if there is a kind of kindness without combining with each other or abandoning their own spouses, regardless of men and women, they are considered to be forgotten and will be condemned by public opinion. Chen Shimei is a typical case. Essence
Fourth, know the grace of encounter.
The kindness that appreciates and reuses others is because of the “Romance of the Three Kingdoms”: “Because of the sense of encounter, you don’t feel that you cry.” Generally, most of them happen between the monarchs and ministers. The “death of a person’s death” is the Jin Dynasty in the late Spring and Autumn Period. In the twenty -two years of publicity (453 BC), Zhao, Han, and Wei Communist Party destroyed Zhi. Yu Zeng believes that “scholars are dead, women are those who are pleasing to themselves” (“Historical Records · Assassin Biography”), gratitude to gratitude, and determined to assassinate Zhao Xiangzi to revenge for Zhibo. He then painted with lacquer, swallowed charcoal to make him dumb. Under the secret bridge, he assisted Zhao Xiangzi attempt and was arrested by Zhao Xiangzi. When he died, he asked Zhao Xiangzi’s clothes, pulled his sword to cut his clothes to show his revenge, and then Fu Jian himself. During the Three Kingdoms period, Zhuge Kongming, in order to repay Liu Bei’s “three care of his cottage”, he trusted Liu Bei after leaving the mountain, and appointed heavily in task. In the “Teacher’s Watch”, “Chen Ben’s clothing, bowed in Nanyang, lived in troubled times, and did not ask for hearing. The council was grateful for the world, so Emperor Xu was driving the first … “For” the special encounter of the emperor, want to report it. ” In the article with earnest words, after persuading the post -inheritance of the Emperor’s legacy, he opened his words, strictly reward and punish, dear and sage, distant villain, fulfilling the great cause of Xingfu Han room, expressing the sincere feelings of Zhuge Liang’s knowledge of the first emperor and the northern Dingding of the Emperor’s encounter. The determination of Central Plains.
Fifth, friends of friends.
In ancient China, “Peng” refers to the same kind, the so -called “gathered in the class, people are divided by group”. “Friends” refers to people with a common ambition, common hobbies, and deep feelings with themselves. If there is a human society, there is communication, and there are friends. In a society based on blood relationships in ancient times, friends did not have the connection between blood and affection, which is different from the father and son and brother; there is no constraints of grades and fame, so it is different from the monarchs and couples. “”. The ancients had a lot of insights on dating, such as “different Taos and no conspiracy”, “choosing good friends”, “gentleman’s friendship is as light as water”, “making friends is expensive to make your heart”, and dating must be “old and old”. Wait. The most basic moral principle of making friends is probably integrity, so Zixia said that: “Dating with friends, saying that there is a faith” (“The Analects of Confucius · Learning”) The letter of dating is also a “three provinces in my day” One of the content “Do you believe with friends?” Only friends, non -relatives, do not have the distinction between the pride and low, the distinction between the courage, the match is the same, the intercourse is also free, and its exceeding interdent is also autonomous, and it is equal to each other. In the relationship, rare autonomous self -determination, arbitraryness, and good evil are in my “freedom and equality” spirit. In modern times, Tan Yitong once fiercely criticized the traditional etiquette and denied the ethics of Confucianism, but only expressed his affirmation to his friend Yilun. He wrote in “Benevolence”: “Wu Lun is the most disadvantaged and beneficial in life. There is no pain, there is a joy of freshwater, but it is friends!” And the reason why “friends” have such joy, it is precisely It contains several properties: “One is equal, the other is freedom, and the third is Xuan but the meaning of the festival. In summary, it is just a sense of autonomy.” And mutual trust is the cornerstone of gratitude. Real friends, with the test of the coolness of the world, must stand the test of life and death, as “Historical Records of the Biography of Jixian” said: “One death is a life, it is a friendship; Cheap, seeing friendship. “The gratitude of friends’ ethics plays an important balance and decompression role in ancient society. The rigidity and indifference of the hierarchical system are gentle, and the friendship, warmth and vitality of society are increased.
During this battle, in addition to gratitude to medical staff, we also need to be grateful to workers, farmers, and all those who work hard for us, and to be grateful to us who care and help. Both the Confucian and the Mo family believe that to get the love of others, we must first love others. Mencius said: “Lover, people who are constant love; respect for people, respect for people.” It will benefit from it. “(” Mozi · Love “) Inherits and develops the gratitude spirit in traditional Chinese culture, and do his best to make people learn to consider thinking about the thoughts of their sincere emotions, care, respect, and help others. Others, caring for others. Thanksgiving is a kind of emotion and behavior from the inner treatment. Regardless of respect, no matter what kind of culture, no matter where you are, the spirit of gratitude is common and eternal. We should know how to be grateful, learn to be grateful, and often be grateful, and often be grateful.