Tip of rosewood cultural relics in the 934th and before
The study of the history of furniture is based on historical documents and physical (unearthed and handed down) evidence. From the perspective of historical documents and botanicals, Mr. Zhou Mo’s “Rosewood” book from the Chinese people’s understanding of rosewood during the Western Jin Dynasty, to Tang Shi’s understanding of rosewood, to the interruption of Rosewood in Yuanming, and then to the Qing Palace Extremely prosperous, an authoritative explanation of the history of rosewood. The detailed and recognition of its historical materials is difficult to come out of the same subject. It can be seen in the book that the rosewood has been revealed in the Tang Dynasty, but the Song Dynasty was silent. In the “Southern Song Dynasty Pavilion Records”, the secretary’s province’s 40 pavilion furnishings, thousands of furniture lists, no rosewood furniture. The Yuan Dynasty’s “Nancun drop -up” and Xu Da’s “Yuan Palace Heritage” showed that not only the “rosewood hall” existed. The favors of the court of the Yuan Dynasty. In 1562, in 1562, in 1562, Yan Song’s family property was made in various names and small pieces, but there was no rosewood appliance. From the generation of the Ming Dynasty to the Jiajing dynasty, it seemed to forget the rosewood. Until the eunuch of the Wanli dynasty Liu Ruoyu’s “Delivery Zhongzhi”, the 43rd year of Wanli gave He Shijin’s “Notes of the Ministry of Industry Factory” in the event. The rosewood in the thousand years of the Tang and Song Yuan and Ming dynasties, the Eu sea was ups and downs. The unearthed and handed down rosewood cultural relics also helps the research of the history of furniture. This article focuses on the albums and explorations of some physical aspects.
First, the Tang Dynasty took the cultural relics unearthed from Zhengcang Yuan and Xinjiang as an example.
1. The rosewood utensils of the Tang Dynasty in the Zhengcang Yuan. The north and south of Zhengcang Courtyard are hidden rosewood utensils.
The Silk Road on the maritime and road opened by the Han Dynasty has made the trade with the outside world more frequent, and all kinds of strange treasures have continued to flow into China. “Ancient and Modern Note” in the Western Jin Dynasty had a record of rosewood. As of the Tang Dynasty, the number of rosewood input gradually increased, and literature such as “Old Tang Book” and “Taiping Guangji” pointed out that rosewood was mainly used to make small luxury goods such as chessboards, shaft heads, small boxes and instruments. These records are the same as the types of utensils in the Masakura House. Tang poems also mentioned rosewood pipa, which confirmed the document records. Therefore, the Tang Dynasty entered the Japanese rosewood in the Tang Dynasty (now Ningbo Port), which was reasonable. Although there are disputes about this, they have asked a number of scholars and experts who have carefully examined the Zhengcang Academy, and they all give a positive answer.
2. The cultural relics unearthed in Xinjiang have double land chess bureau and piano, and the Turpan Astana M206 is unearthed.
Neither unearthed cultural relics above were found. Professor Liu Xianbo of Hubei University of Technology, Professor Liu Xianbo, speculated that the dark blue parts and middle red areas on both sides of the chess game are likely to apply dyeing (Liu 312). There are obvious mistakes. Some scholars observe the real objects that the dark parts of the chess game on both sides of the chess game are inlaid in the middle of the piano. The dark wood is rosewood.
Second, the Yuan Dynasty. During the Republic of China, the Construction Society refers to the compilation of “Nancun Drinking Capital Record” and “Yuan Palace Heritage Records”. For the first time, it is clear that rosewood and furniture are linked with furniture.
In the 1970s, a Chinese Yuan Dynasty ship was found in the Xin’an Sea in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula.
There is a “three years to the rule” ink book, that is, 1323, and the name of the “Qingyuan Road” logo
), 1017 “rosewood” on the shipbuilding ship, most of them are solid, with a length of 30-200 cm.
Kim Bingzhang, the National Ocean Relics Exhibition Hall of Korea, published the article “Rosewood and International Trade” in “Research on History of Sea Dutch” in 2009. For rosewood, no detection channels and test reports are not given. Some experts believe that it may be Huanghuali or mahogany.
The discovery needs to be confirmed by further data, but if it is really rosewood, the legend of the so -called “Zheng He’s found rosewood in the west” is overthrown, although it is recorded from historical materials.
Third, the Ming Dynasty. 1. “Forty -six -character inscription Rosewood rudder pole”, 8.2 meters long, was processed into square wood, with large wood, small heads, 43 cm width, 48 cm high, and “Yongle Ten Years” inscription on the wood. , Collected in the Penglai Pavilion Ancient Ship Museum.
The museum was published in the 02th issue of “Research on History of the Sea”. The precious ship materials are sampled, and the Institute of Wood Industry, the China Forestry Science Research Institute of China Forestry Sciences, asked Mr. Yaoshen to identify it.
The author went to the inspection at the end of November 2019. One did not see the test report of the Forestry Academy of Sciences, and the other was not found to find the characteristics of rosewood.
2. The Shanghai Museum’s Tomb of the Zhu Shoucheng Tomb of the Ming Dynasty. In addition to the dragon patterns of the dragon patterns, the group of artifacts in this group was exhibited in the Zhejiang Museum’s “Long Bad” in October 2018. The exhibition logos are rosewood or Huanghuali except for bamboo fragrant tube.
Among them, the large -scale bright clouds, rosewood pen screens, and bright purple sandalwood pen holders. Capture some details at the exhibition site for your reference.
The columns, bases, and the tube of the pen holder show the obvious “chicken wings” pattern. The author believes that such textures are not what rosewood should have, but a kind of red bean wood. We cannot determine that the dark wood of this group of liberal arts is not rosewood, but at least these two materials are not rosewood.
3. The Metropolitan Museum of the United States Collection “Tomorrow Sky Rosewood Sites”.
Zhang Tingji, a scientist in the Qing Dynasty, wrote a book and waited for his body. Its ten volumes of the “Ancient Artifacts in the Qingyi Pavilion”, in the form of extension and postscript, set up 429 ancient utensils, from 1822 to 1844, a total of 22, a total of 22 year. After research by historians, most of these utensils are hidden by themselves, and Tuo Ben is mostly extended by themselves. Every extension must have a postponing. It is a valuable information for studying Jinshi.
The tenth volume of the book collects 47 pieces such as 砚, ink, woodcut, and bamboo carvings since the Song Dynasty. The woodcuts recorded the lettering inscriptions of 3 furniture.
On the back of the chair, the inscription of Zhou Tianqiao was exactly the same as Zhang Tingji’s book (the left is Zhang Tingji, and the right is An Siyuan photo).
Of course, the existence of the pads and photos is different from the physical deviation. The real judgment requires the original comparison of the original pioneer and the physical comparison before it can be determined. Please note that the text part of the pioneer and the seal may be the two (there is an obvious line between the two), so the position of the two is deviated from the photo.
In addition to the pioneering films in Zhang Tingji, there are still postscripts: “Rosewood sitting on the board of the back, Zhou Gong (1514-1595) was born in the nine years of Zhengde, and died in the three years of Wanli. Chen is three years of Longqing, and there are fifty years in the public flaws. ” It can be seen from this text that Zhang Tingji thought that the inscription on the back of the chair was carved at the age of 55. This is one.
The postship then mentioned that Zhang Tingji chanted the poem in the 13th year of Jiaqing (1808): “Sitting on the day of Zhiyuan … Dachun still has eight thousand spring.” Zhiyuan is a residence of Zhougong, and the inscription is engraved with the seal of “Zhiyuan Jushi”. The poem also mentioned Mo Linji at the same time.
After the poem, the postsatal text: “The sea monitoring yellow pepper is promoted to Xifan. There is a view that this article states that the ink of yellow pepper to use Zhang Tingji to use Zhang Tingji to be engraved on the chair, so the rosewood chair was hidden by the yellow pepper rise. According to this reasoning, the chair should have the inscriptions of Zhang Tingji’s poems, but it is not known. Maybe the poem is engraved behind the back board, and we have not been confirmed by the Metropolitan Museum.
This post was written in Daoguang six years (1827), and three years later (Geng Yinnian) Zhang Tingji titled another post after the posts: “Ten years ago (1820), the sea prison for yellow pepper to rise to the capital, begging Yu Limu’s old sitting “. Explaining the book should be the inscription of Zhou Gongba, not Zhang Tingji poetry. Obviously it is not the rosewood sitting gear mentioned at the beginning of the post. Therefore, the text shows that the yellow pepper is rising on another old pear and wood chair and repeated Zhou Gong’s inscription. Therefore, it is very likely that there was a pear wood chair that was engraved with Zhou Gong in 1820. This is the second.
Zhang Tingji recorded in “Qingyi Pavilion Miscellaneous Wings”: “Zhou Gong flaws, rosewood, three -inch, one foot and three inches in a high, one foot and three inches, one size, five inch eight points. One day is like two days, if you live for 70 years, it will be hundreds of 40 ‘. Winter Winter Zhou Tianmei Book. “Whether it is owned by Zhang Tingji himself, there is no reliable information for the time being, and the records in the miscellaneous chant need to be further verified. In his poems, the “Qiqi Cases Mo Lin Zhen” did not indicate that there was this chair. Therefore, the owner of the rosewood chair was Zhang Tingji at the time, but it should not be rising yellow pepper, otherwise he would not re -engraved the system. This is the third.
The first half of Zhou Gong’s inscription, the information that can be collected is basically here, and can only hope that more information will appear. The second half of the inscription also contains a lot of information cannot be ignored.
The second half of the inscription did not appear in Zhang Tingji’s book. The inscription is the title of “Wu Yun” chapter of the “Wu Yun”. Wu Yun, the word Shaofu, No. Pingzhai, Yuting, Yueting, Hao Xunzi, and retired from the owner in the evening. In the sixteenth year of Jiaqing (1811), he died in the ninth year of Guangxu (1883). A native of Gui’an (now Huzhou) Zhejiang, a native of Yixian County, Anhui. Zhaitang is the residence of Two Two Xuan Xuan, two hundred Lan Tingzhai, Dunyuzhai, and Jinshi Shoushi.
Wu Yunming is divided into two sections, and the previous paragraph records his origin with the chair. Wu Yunsheng’s sixteen years contained in the inscription, which is in line with the retrieval life. “Yi Chou (1865) autumn and July won this chair in a certain city, fifty years, and five”. Like the age of Zhou Gong’s inscription, it is “strange fate”. When Wu Yun got this chair, Zhang Tingji had been for 17 years, so it was impossible to appear the inscription in “The Twelve of the Ancient Artifacts in the Qingyi Pavilion”. This is four.
The second paragraph of Wu Yunming recorded another strange event: “The rosewood chair of the ugly year …… In more than four years (1869) Second chair. By Gengwu (1870) in winter, there is a chair from a certain family. ” In five years, Wu Yun got three other chairs. And “all with Mingxian handwriting”! The three chairs obtained later also engraved the handwriting of the Ming Dynasty. When the question was recorded, Wu Yun was sixty years old, and every time he “listened to the completion of the Fengshan Museum”, he remembered it.
Wu Yun’s three chairs later did not describe it. They only said that the three chairs and Zhou Gong sat with “just with the slightest difference in the slightest difference”, and there were also celebrities’ strokes in the Ming Dynasty. At this point, I have to mention other three chairs collected by the Metropolitan Museum. They are also based on the same material, and they also engraved with famous poems on the back of the chair.
Zhou Tianqiao is confirmed to be a rosewood chair through Ansis and the Metropolitan Museum. Zhang Tingji’s historical materials are enough to prove that the chair is a Ming Dynasty. It still needs to be further verified.