How can the ancients be frugal and live a life
Li Hongzhang Title Counterfeit: “Goethehui Huahua quickly postes still savage and frugal 絜 lamb”
Zhao Yan’s “Culture Map” (partial)
Confucius Zhongshutang “Home Think Thinking”
“Zeng Guofan and Brother’s Book” fragment: “The position is not arrogant, the Lu is unexpectedly extravagant”
“The gentleman is difficult to make it difficult, and you can’t be honored” (“Zhou Yi”); For thousands of years, these familiar classic famous sentences have laid the rich and frugal tradition of Chinese culture. In national governance and national construction, in the family training of millions of households, this kind of frugal tradition inheritance shows strong vitality.
“Successful frugality is broken from luxury”
“Group Book Governance · Han Book” cloud: “Since Cheng Kang, a few and Chitose, who want to be a governance, but Taiping is not rejuvenated, why?” And Ren selfishness, luxury and benevolence are also abolished. “It means that there are two reasons why the Taiping prosperous world is no longer: one is that the rulers are governed by their own selfishness and preferences, and the other is the prevalence of luxury and abandoning the righteousness. History shows that the “Taiping Shengshi” in Chinese history has passed the “tight life”.
An important feature of the Western Han Dynasty’s “Governance of Wenjing” is to promote frugality and waste waste. For more than 20 years, Emperor Wen was in the palace garden, car and horses, and did not increase. Emperor Wen wanted to be a terrace. When the budget was budget, it took a lot of money. The total property of the ten people in the middle class was given up. Emperor Jing also continued to reduce his expenses. He never accepted or provided luxury goods. Otherwise, he would use the theory of theft and required officials at all levels to “save money for the people.” The two emperors of Wenjing often wear coarse clothes, and the harem girl is not allowed to wear a long -haired dress. The emperor took the lead in funeral. During the funeral of the widow, it was not allowed to affect the normal production and life of the people, and it was not allowed to be buried with valuables. In this way, the country’s expenses have been reduced, and the bureaucratic nobles dare not excessive money and waste, and the people’s burdens are greatly alleviated. There is a situation of exiles and rapid reproduction in the society. What is the rule of “Wen Jing Zhi”? In summary, it is to govern luxury, govern the army, and govern the tyrants.
The same is true of “Guangwu ZTE” in the Eastern Han Dynasty. In view of the disadvantages such as the corruption of officials in the late Western Han Dynasty, the bureaucratic luxury and the wind, etc., they paid special attention to rectifying the governance, frugal, rewarding integrity, and selecting virtuous energy. On the one hand, it is thin, and tax reduction is implemented. In the sixth year of Jianwu (30 AD), Xiayu restored the tax system of 30 taxes in the early Western Han Dynasty. On the other hand, Wu Xiuwen, do not work. Guangwu “knows the world’s fatigue, Siyue shoulder shoulders, since Long Shu Ping, it is not anxious, and has not tried to repeat the military brigade.” On the one hand, at the same time as the tax reduction, Emperor Guangwu ordered the real departments of Sili Prefecture, and the provinces were reduced. So “there are more than 400 counties, and the provinces are reduced by the officials, one is one of the one.” On the other hand, strict requirements on local officials and strict rewards and penalties. After rectification, the officialdom has changed. Therefore, the “Hou Han Book” has the reputation of “the inside and outside the outside world, and the people’s broad interest”.
The “Governance of Zhenguan” in the Tang Dynasty was due to the frugal bells that were frugal often, leaving a good example for future generations. Li Shimin personally experienced the speed of the rise and fall of the Sui Dynasty. When reflecting on the reason, he said: “In the past, the first family of the first year, the beautiful women in the palace played the same dissatisfaction. To death. “Therefore,” Chu Ping Luoyang, the grandeur of the palace of the Sui family ordered it to destroy it. “
“Zhenguan Government Extraordinary Extraorders · On the Protection of Through the Protection” records many stories of Tang Taizong. Among them, the first year of Zhenguan, Taizong said to the servant: Since ancient times, the emperor must be in the hearts of the people. In the past, Dayu chilled Jiushan and Tong Jiujiang, which consumed huge manpower, but no one complained, because the people’s hearts were directed; Qin Shihuang camp built the palace room, and the people opposed it, because Qin Shihuang violated the people’s hearts to satisfy his selfish desires. I really want to build a palace, and the materials of the materials are ready, but think about Qin Shihuang’s lesson and decide not to build anymore. The ancients once said: Do not do unhelpful things and damage to beneficial things. I do n’t see it, so that the people ’s heart is not chaotic.
Li Shimin keeps in mind that “the world is a little peaceful, especially cautious, if he is proud, he will be defeated.” In order to save the cost of the palace, the palace girl was released at one time. Local officials were also prohibited from entering Gongci Treasures, and thick burial was strictly prohibited.
In the four years of Zhenguan, Tang Taizong ordered the Qianyuan Hall of Luoyang for future fun. In the incident, Zhang Xuansu strongly opposed: “When His Majesty had captured Luoyang at the beginning, he ordered the temple because of the fact that the facts of the emperor’s extravagance were killed. Why did you forget it? “Taizong heard it, sighed, admitted that he had considered it, stopped the project, and appreciated Zhang Xuan Su Cai Silk. Later, when talking about this, Taizong also said, “If it wasn’t for Zhang Xuansu, I am afraid that I would like to do something that violated the original intention. In the future, when I go to Luoyang, even if I stay in the wild, I will not do this labor and the people who hurt the people. It’s the matter. “
Taizong often said that the monarchs can live in a weakness, to make simplifications, and demonstrate the people of the people in the world. He suffered from “qi disease” and was unbalanced and humid. Gong Qing asked to build a palace in the highlands, and was rejected by him on the grounds of “much money”. The left and right “ask for again and again, it is not allowed.” In the family training of Emperor Fan, he warned prince Li Zhi: “The husband, the husband, frugality to nourish, quietly to cultivate. “Under the advocacy of Tang Taizong and” quitting extravagance “,” Maitz’s earth “and” evil clothes “became the morality of the monarchs and ministers. The old house, there was no sacrifice place after death; Wei Zheng’s family had no Zhengtang. So that the famous poet Li Shangyin of the Tang Dynasty lamented: “The prevalence of the former country and home, the diligence and frugality broke the luxury.”
Not only that, live a good “tight life” has also become one of the important contents of the ancient Chinese national governance of financial management. The financial ideas in the famous “Guanzi” during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period were: “Trial volume, festivals, frugal money, prohibit luxury Tai”; Poor. “In the early Han Dynasty, Jia Yi’s” On Storage and Reserve “also pointed out:” Sometimes the death of life is used, and material resources must be flexed. ” : “If you take it for degree, you can use it, but it is often sufficient; if you have no degree, it is often insufficient.” fee.”
“It is better to use it for integrity as easy”
The Song Dynasty was a very special period in Chinese history. On the one hand, the economic and cultural prosperity was relatively prosperous, and on the other hand, foreign relations have always been weak. However, there is no doubt that the Song Dynasty advocated frugality for a long period of time, and the “tight life” institutionalized in life.
Most emperors in the Song Dynasty seemed to have a frugal nature in their bones, with a tradition of frugal country and dare not extravagant. Zhao Kuangyin was born in a soldier family. He has strict tutoring from an early age and has developed a habit of diligence and thrift. As soon as the founding of the country, he began to take the lead in “tight days”. Everything in the palace was simple, “all are still quality”, the curtains used cheap green cloth, and the usual clothes were not much different from ordinary officials. The name was wasted later, and more than 50 people were dismissed.
At the beginning of the Song Dynasty, not only did the costumes of officials strictly stipulate, but the royal family was no exception to their children. On one occasion, Princess Yongqing returned to the palace province. Zhao Kuangyin found that the clothes on her daughter were very gorgeous. They were embroidered with flowers, and they were inlaid with green feathers. He was very unhappy, and said to his daughter, “You take off this dress, and don’t wear such gorgeous clothes anymore in the future.” Princess Yongqing didn’t understand, and said, “I am a princess, why can’t I wear it to wear ? “Zhao Kuangyin said solemnly:” Because you are a princess, you can’t wear it like this. If you are so gorgeous, when others see it, you will follow the imitation. It makes Zibu countless times more expensive. Do you know how much it costs this dress? If others also learn from you, Cui Yu will increase the price, and a large amount of kingfisher will be hunted. You are born in a wealthy home. Don’t give this bad at the beginning. “
Under the influence of Zhao Kuangyin, the emperors of all generations will live a “tight life”. Song Taizong set up an inner library to reduce the people’s Fu, and stated that “the consideration of the ministers cannot be saved, the time is different. Song Zhezong cuts the country to reduce the country: “The state of the state is entered, and it has a constant system. If the floating fee is not reduced, the income is out. Song Gaozong painted the scoop: “In addition to the bad chaos of Ji Gang, the mourning of the division brigade is the extreme, the country is embarrassed, and the strength is weak and the people are tired. The official officer of the Taizi Supervisor, the Supervisory Department, and the former Junjun officials have been appointed as the county. In half a month, each of the duties and opinions are true. “Song Shenzong’s ascendant, he requested that” the current financial management is the most urgent, and the troops are prepared. The treasury should not be abundant. The ministers should pay attention to the use of the festivals. “
The frugal country in the Song Dynasty used a system, and its court expenses, sacrifice expenditures, and rewarded ministers all required frugality. The palace banquet of the Song Dynasty was divided into several levels according to the history of the Song Dynasty, but it was not extravagant. There are no dishes in the first two wines. The third time is only provided with wine: meat, salty drums, burst meat, double hump horn, cable powder, etc. In Lu You’s “Lao Xueyu Notes”, the Nine dishes of the Golden Embassy of Jiying Temple invited the snacks of the Golden National Environment. It is very ordinary.
In particular, Song Renzong, his frugality was even more frugal than his ancestors. Many notes in the Song Dynasty left specific cases and had to be taken to read. “The Old Wenwen” records: “Renzong frugal and morality, 殆 《《, especially the clothes of Huanyu. When the clothes are unknown, the new clothes of the Yuxu private can be pushed away. Huanyu, with the break, will not be reluctant. The left and right fingers are referred to each other, or they are laughing, and they are not shy. At that time The four squares, the people’s day is rich. Compared with the respect of thrift, the walls are repeatedly hung on the wall, and the extravagance is a lot of decline, and it is covered. “
The Song of the Song Dynasty “Bei Window Boiling Records” records two small things. One is: Song Renzong early dynasty, his complexion was a little embarrassed. It’s not fast. “The minister doubted, thinking that the emperor worked over last night, and” said the palace, thinking that His Majesty was the maintenance of the holy bow. ” Renzong laughed: “Bing this would be there? Night comes to lose hunger.” The ministers were shocked and said, “What is it?” Ren Zong said, “Night comes slightly, and occasionally eats to burn sheep. So hungry. “The minister said:” Why not give up? “Ren Zong said:” I think about it, there is no night for burning sheep in the ancestral law, and the descendants of the later generations may be the story. When killing a few sheep!
Another record: “Renzong tastes the palace people’s blog, only to pay thousands of money, but he loses, that is, he is half -left, and the palace people laugh and say:” The official family is too poor, and he is unwilling to lose. “Renzong Zongzong Said: ‘Ru knows this money for whom money? This is not my money, but the people’s money. I have used thousands of dollars today.’ “
Shao Bowen’s “Shaw He Wen Jian Lu” has one thing: Renzong “good food and bleward white fish”, but Huai white fish is a specialty of Jiangnan, and it is not seen in Kaifeng. Therefore, the emperor has always been “unable to cause.” Later, the queen had to ask Lu Yijian’s wife: “Xianggong family is in Shouzhou, should there be a bad Huai white fish?” Mrs. Lu went home to present two baskets of fish for the queen.
Not only Renzong, the other emperors are roughly not bad. “West Lake Tour” records that when Song Gaozong eats, he is accustomed to preparing more chopsticks, because “Gao Zong is in De Shou, every meal, you must have two spoons. Take a device and eat it. The rice is reduced with a spoon. Wu Queen asked him, saying: “I don’t want to eat with the palace. If you do n’t finish, you can enjoy it to the palace people, which is a respect for the palace people.
On the evening of May 3, the first year of Longxing (1163) in the Southern Song Dynasty, Song Xiaosong invited Hu Yan at the cabinet banquet at the back hall. Hu Yan said that there was a pepper vinegar fish in the table. Song Xiaosong told him: “Ziyu is very good. I can reconcile a daily meal and eat for two days. There is no rot. “A fish for two days, Xiaozong’s diet is frugal. After hearing it, Hu Yan was quite moved and said, “His Majesty’s expensive emperor, and frugality is so, Zhen Yao and Shun regenerate.” Xiaosong also said: “When Xiang Shi Tai Shang, he saw Tai Shang eating, but he ate one or two hundred dollars. I have a frugal aspiration at this time. “
Even so, the ministers of the Song Dynasty kept entering and knocking on the emperor. For example, Su Shi entered the “Cebie”: “People and princes are in the world, and they are easy to do, and they are easy to do. It is easy. “Zeng Gong went to” Capital “:” The ancients and the ancients were used for the country for thirty years to make nine years. To come out. Those who are not frugal in the country are also sacrifices. However, if you use the number of numbers, you can know that the first king can be known. The Book of Books proposed that the emperor should “be a good ambition, unbearable heart”, “the play of shame beads and jade”, “less monks, unsatisfactory civil engineering, showing the frugality of the world.” With such a monarch and minister, the “tight days” of the Song Dynasty government had a very delicious taste.
By the time of Song Huizong, this tradition was broken. 100,000. “As a result, not only did Qin Yue and other luxury power of life appeared, but soon ushered in” the shame of Jingkang “.
“Jane Jianjian is a family style”
Confucius said: “Li is also extravagant and frugal.” Many people in history are proud of frugality and ashamed of extravagance. They realize that frugality has four benefits, can raise virtue, nourish life, nourish the spirit, and nourish qi (“He Lin Yulu”). As for the specific family, whether it is a prosperous or troubled times, ancient Chinese families have a long -standing tradition of “tight life”. Anyone or family who has a slightly inherited family understands that their families can be stretched for a long time. They not only pursue the creed of frugality and cultivation to prolong life, but also be alert to the source of evil and the signs of the loser. As a cell of society, the family’s frugality and luxury are directly related to the quality of society, and the house of officials is particularly the same.
“Historical Records of the Ruby Family” contains, and during the Spring and Autumn Period, Lu Guo Zhengqing Ji Wenzi was born in the nobility family of the third generation. He has been in charge of the national politics and military power for more than 30 years. , He is loyal to the festival in his life, to be diligent in the state, and to be frugal. “There is no clothing of the family, there is no horses of the food, and there is no golden jade in the house.” Meng Xianzi’s son Zhong Sun saw him so frugal and said disdain: “You are a national minister, representing the image of the country, but so shabby and embarrassing. Are you not afraid of the joke of Chinese martial arts? The reputation of the country. Why does you change? It is good for the people and the country to the country. I saw a lot of people eating crude food and wearing a lot of clothes, and some were even hungry. I couldn’t watch the people across the country’s clothes, coarse tea and light rice, and let myself and their families wear gorgeous. I feel uneasy. Moreover, I only heard that the image and honor of the country are manifested through the noble morality and civilization of the subjects. I have never heard of showing off the wealth and luxury, and the big lectures can add color to the country! “Meng Xianzi heard that After the incident, he was very angry, and the son Zhong Sun was banned for seven days to show the punishment.
The Song Dynasty was the most good dynasty of officials, and it was also the most prominent period of the phenomenon of redundant officials.
Sima Guang has concentrated on the fifteen years of “Zi Zhi Tong Jian” in Luoyang. During this time, he equivalent to Wen Yanbo and Fan Chunren, and met with “Yingying” and “True Level”. Sake counting. Singing each other is also proud of frugality. Wen Yanbo has a poem: “The 菽 菽 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文: “Following the cola with the family, who has smiled the poor?” With a few words, they fully expressed their great ambitions for their frugality and rescue. During Sima Guang’s lectures, he was also frugal and did not ask for extravagance. “The public makes a warm talk every five days, just a cup, one meal, one side, one meat, and one dish.” (“Lazy Zhenzi” Volume 10) When he returned to his hometown of Shanxia County, Shanxia County, his father and fellow came to welcomes the gift. With tile pots, the rice pots and crocks of vegetables are “enjoying too much.”
Su Shi, who claims to be “sir is poor for years”, specially works for “Diet Speed”: “Dongpo Jushi has eaten in the morning and evening, but one by one. . Those who have recruited me, pre -tell this. The owner does not pass by, but it is stopped. One is to educate the blessing, and the other is to keep the stomach to nourish qi, and save money for three days. “He told his family, from Now, just drink a glass of wine for each meal and eat a ravioli. If you visit the guests, the feast entertains, but it is not three ravioli, and there can only be less. If others invite, first tell others not to exceed the standard. If they don’t agree, they will not go. He believes that there are three good places in this way: one can restore the blessing, the second can wide the stomach to nourish the spirit, and the three can save money to nourish the wealth. “He Lin Yulu” records that during Su Shi’s residence, no more than 150 or fifty essays were used every day. Pick a string of fork and go out in the money bag. Writing to Li Gong also pointed out: The desire of the appetite is endless, and you usually pay attention to frugality.
Su Shi had a tight life and rose to the theory of vegetable health. Where he did an official, he dug out where the wild vegetables were dug. Write his own life in “Fuyu Fu”: “Mr. Dongpo has been used under Nanshan, and is used as a serving device. It is called or not. Eat it with 不. It does not need to be sauce, but it has a natural taste. Gaisai can be enjoyed. “He wrote in the poem” Song Qiaoquan Sending Congratulations “:” The quinoa asked to raise God “, and persuaded others not to be drunk and dreaming with their own experience.
Lu You also enjoyed “tight days”, paying “roughness” for diet, and striving for light. He advocates eating more vegetables and rampant food as much as possible. The purpose of doing this is “not to pay for money for the leave”, but to cultivate a good family style, “never Jianjian is a family style.” Rough tea and light rice, calm in my heart, “but it deserves to be in the chest, a meal of beautiful enemy purple hump.”
Many of the famous ministers of all ages have left home training. Most of them are ethical and morals, and their diligence and frugality are fundamental, showing the dialectical view of frugality. For example, Zhang Zai listed “Quit Fresh Clothing Food” and “Quit Drinking Crazy Songs” as a “ten precepts” in the family training; Lu You hopes to spread the frugal family and the descendants in “Futing Weng Family Training”: “Ancient Education People Eating birds and beasts is not only to go to the people’s harm, but also the grains are not as many as today, so it is less than that of food. If the desire of the poor mouth, every eclipse will be a knife, the remaining things, the people are still full of people, Fang Sheng’s summer summer , I have not been stinky, and I am very sarcastic. I want to remove the chickens and goose and goose, and the people and animals are eaten by people and animals. If you are full of diet, if you are full, if you are slightly refined, you can also be in Fengbinyan. Zeng Guofan, a famous minister in the late Qing Dynasty, is known for his good governance of his family. He not only lives a “tight day”, only eats one meal, and hears a piece of clothes for thirty years. He also advocates “tight days”. , Never poverty. ” Others such as Hu Linyi, Zuo Zongtang, Zhang Zhidong, Liang Qichao and other modern figures are the same. Therefore, people who will live a “tight life” basically can be used with integrity. As for the historical family, such as Zheng Yimen in Zhejiang, the Wangjia Courtyard of Shanxi, the Hakkas of Yongding in Fujian, and Zhanggu Yingcun, Hunan, almost every family is a good master of “tight days”. They understand that if they want to break the “rich three generations” The only way to spend is to live a good “tight life”.
“Diligorability to build a country, permanent is the truth”
History shows that for thousands of years, the tradition of “tight days” has nothing to do with richness and wealth. In the difficult time, living “tight days” is a good law to resolve difficulties. From Jinggangshan to the Yan’an period, the Communist Party’s red gene has the tradition of “tightening pants belt”. Mao Zedong, Zhu De and other leaders took the lead in “tight days”. Mao Zedong often wore pants with large patch, covered three and a half pounds of old quilts, and used grass as pillows to sleep at night; “If you think about the country, you can save a little bit”, ” Noodles, simple and muddy as Tianjia weng. “In the Anti -Japanese War, the base has always been survived by” tight days “. In 1943, the” Implementation Outline of the Simplified Policy of the Shaanxi -Gansu -Ningxian Border Area “stipulated that there were five points. (1) Do not lift the affairs, do not need money, and do not need to be in the case of urgency and urgent use, and strive for a reasonable economy.提倡勤俭朴素,避免铺张浪费;疏散机关,调整窑洞,停止建筑;减少公差公马,提倡动手动脚;实行粮票制,免去双重粮的浪费;注意一张纸、一片布、一点灯油、 Save a match; cherish each public property to make it more days; do not add budgets and establish a strict audit system; , Carry out the struggle against corruption and waste; (4) to cherish the people’s power, control the mobilization, and do not waste a people, a civil animal; (5) adhere to the integrity and style, and severely oppose corruption. Zhu De once wrote a poem: “Diligence and frugality builds the country permanently.” The party and the country have encountered many difficulties in many times, and each time came over, and the policy of diligence and frugality played an important role.
“The paintings have been lived shortly, and there is a bad period of the carved beams; the cream is eaten soon, and the treasure is broken.” The peacefulness of the place is in danger, and the new era also needs to carry forward the tradition of “tight life” in the new era. (Liu Xuyi)