Open history Japanese watches and Swiss watches in the quartz Revolution
When it comes to quartz watches, many people may think of Japanese Seiko. In fact, the use of quartz technology to the clock is not the patent of the Japanese, but as early as 1928, American scientist Voron Marison used quartz crystals to produce the characteristics of frequency stable and vibration in the circuit, creating the first quartz clock in the quartz clock. Essence However, the quartz technology was slightly retracted to a small shell, but it was Japanese. As a result, Switzerland, which has been for hundreds of years, has endured a disaster for hundreds of years.
1969 -Seiko Astron, the first quartz watch, using 18K gold shell, at that time, priced at 450,000 yen, about $ 1257. According to the gold exchange at that time, you can buy a dozen Rolex watches.
On December 25, 1969, Japan Seiko launched the world’s first quartz watch, with an average monthly error of about 5 seconds, which is more than hundreds of times more accurately than the then mechanical watch.
Essence The research and development plan of the quartz crystal shocks began to the first quartz watch on the surface of the quartz crystal shock, and after 10 years. After 1969, the structural principles of the quartz watch were free of charge, and the quartz watch trend swept the world.
In addition to competing in terms of accuracy, quartz watches have also begun to multi -functionalization, which also liberated the imagination of watch designers. Watches can be thinner and smaller, and their functions can be more complicated. The most important thing is that the price is more close to the people.
Founder of Seiko -Jin Taro of the Ministry
We all know that quartz watches are more accurate than mechanical watches, because quartz watch’s quartz’s quartz shock frequency is higher, and mechanical watches are usually 3Hz, that is, 3 times per second, and common mechanical watches are usually 21600 times per hour/28800 times. The quartz watches can be tens of thousands of times per second. The world’s first quartz watch named “Seiko Astron”, at that time, the frequency of the machine heart was 8192Hz. However, later, the Vibration frequency of quartz machine was set by another watched watchmakers in Switzerland in 1971, which was designated as 32768Hz. This quartz watch standard has been used to this day.
1972 -Seiko quartz VFA 39SQC
The quartz watch is accurate, but does not mean that there is no error. The temperature of the external environment will affect the vibration frequency of the quartz vibration crystal. The perfect temperature is about 20 °, but the temperature in real life is changing at any time. Therefore, errors occur. Generally speaking, the monthly error of the quartz movement is about 10 seconds.
1973 -Precision Gonggong Senior quartz watch
Seiko quartz LCD display
Seiko Shuangli Calendar Watch
At the beginning of the launch, the price of quartz watches is extremely expensive. Ordinary quartz watches are up to 130,000 yen, equivalent to 390 US dollars, and only a small amount of production. Even before 1971, quartz watches were not included in the company’s production statistics.
However, began in 1972, the quantitative production technology of quartz tables has matured, with an annual output of 60,000, and has reached 1.7 million after 1975. This has caused a great violation of the traditional Swiss machinery market.
The quartz watch was more expensive at the beginning. Japan Casio, which was originally a calculator, also launched a watch C-80 with a calculator function, sinking the price to $ 75. Later, Casio added the phone number book function, which was sold in many countries for a while, setting a sales record of 6 million units in five years.
Casio makes quartz watches more affordable. In 1974, Casio launched its first digital quartz watch Casiotron. The table is the result of the company’s research on LCI quartz technology. The technology used by electronic pocket calculators is similar to the quartz watch.
Quartet technology also compromised some traditional Swiss watchmakers, including in 1977, Rolex released two quantitative quartz machines: Cal.5035 and CAL.5055.
After suffering the quartz crisis, heuer Haoya Watch was also sold to TAG Group in 1985, so now it has become Tagheuer Tiger Haoya.
After the quartz crisis began, the Swaqi Group began to reduce Langqin’s brand grade. At the same time, let Langqin participate in the research and development and production of quartz watches. In fact, Langqin is not a foreigner for quartz technology. As early as 1955, Langqin set up a research team to develop electronic watches.
Chronocinegines in 1954
1969 -Langqin quartz concept form
The Langqin quartz watch group established a partnership with the independent electronics company Bernard Golay Sa. In 1965, the first quartz watch prototype was launched. Two years later, the two partners signed a convention. Langqin watch paid the Golay franchise fees from the sales of quartz watches. They separated the R & D project between Langqin (mechanical part) and Golay (electronic parts), while quartz was commissioned by the Oscilloquartz department of Ebauches SA.
Longines Calibre 6512 quartz machine heart
However, there are still many ways to go from the research and development test to batch production, such as the industrialization and commercialization of Langqin in the batch production of the prototype. At that time, there were no industrial conditions for mass production, and lack of coordination with technical management engineers. In February 1971, Golay delivered 50 quartz machines to the Langqin sales department. However, the quality of the machine has a lot of heart, so the two partners rolled their faces.
Langqin made 200 large -scale production attempts in August 1971. It was not until 1972 that the Ultra-Quartz machine was launched, but it was unfortunately unsuccessful. At this time, because the competitors produced other types of quartz machines and sold it at a lower price, it was outdated.
From 1977 to 1978, the studio of Langqin watch was suitable for large -scale production of electronic machines. At the same time, although it continues to buy quartz machines from Ebauchs SA, Longines began to develop its own internal electronic machine heart. After the merger of the owner of Euauches and Langqin watch, asaag and SSIH (Omeg Group) in 1983, SMH (Swaqi Group was established since 1998). This has led to the adjustment of the new industrial structure. Among them, Langqin watches no longer have the technical management department (1984) and abandoned its R & D and production activities.
As a result, under the leadership of Hayek Group, the Swaqi Group has changed people’s standard definition of “good watches”. Watches are no longer just tools used to look at time, but a decoration, a luxury that shows their identity. Taste. Let people accept the mechanical watch again.
Although the quartz watch is not sought after today, there is no mechanical watch height in the same case. But it also popularized the habit of wearing watches and made the watch industry still popular today. His contribution is great.