“Code Heroes” Season 4 (8): Steve Wozniak Answer
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Code Hero Command Line Heroes is the world’s leading open source software solution supplier Red Hat (Red Hat) carefully produced by the original audio podcast. Real epic. The audio blog invited many technologies of heavy -duty companies such as Google and NASA to tell the moving stories of open source, operating systems, containers, DevOps, hybrid clouds, etc.
This article is the fourth season of the “Code Heroes” series “Code Hero” (8): The audio script of Steve Wozniak’s anecdote.
Introduction: Steve Wozniak (Woz), Steve Wozniak, has a huge impact on the hardware world. In the fourth season, many equipment he designed, manufactured, participate, and inspired by him. But for Woz, the most important thing is often not the device he created, but how he builds them.
Woz tells how his early hacker transformation Tinkering work has triggered his passion for the project. In high school, he started learning computer knowledge on GE 225. Soon, he began to design the computer he wanted to buy, and finally determined his slogan, “Simple Design”. This concept made him complete the Apple I after seeing Altair 8800 at the homemade computer club, and designed a floppy drive for Apple II. But at that time, his most proud of his engineering achievements was recognized and shared these achievements with the world.
00:00:01 -Saron Yitbarek
Hello everyone, I am Saron Yitbarek, the host of the Red Hat original podcast “Code Hero”. If you count, this season is the fourth season of our show. In this season, we have taken you on a historic journey, entering the hardware world and those teams that dare to change the traditional hardware manufacturing. From EAGLE small machines to GE-225 large machines, from Altair 8800 to floppy disk, from Palm’s palm computer to Sega’s TV game console, although these machines are now outdated and have been forgotten by everyone, they are today’s hardware evolution and development The development of the people paved the way.
In the process, these machines inspired the personal computer revolution, open source software movement and open source hardware movement, and changed the historical process of computer. But before the end of our fourth season, there was another thing to say.
00:01:03 -Steve Wozniak
I am Steve Wozniak, the co -founder of Apple Computer. I’m glad to talk to you.
For more than thirty years, Steve Wozniak has been helping to shape the computer industry. His early contributions include designing Apple’s first product line: Apple I and Apple II. He helped create Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), and is the founder of Tech Museum, Silicon Valley Ballet Silicon Valley Ballet, and San Jose Children’s Discovery Museum of San Jose. In 2017, he co -founded Woz U University of Woz U.
00:01:08 -Saron Yitbarek
If you think about the first few episodes of this season, you will find that Steve Wozniak’s name is not only once or twice, but many times. This is because of Woz (this is a kind of people’s kind name for him). He not only experienced the history, but also played an important role in it. This very special code hero is sitting here now, talking about his personal experience in hardware history. Let’s start with the first hardware he loves.
00:01:42 -Steve Wozniak
When I was very young, it was about 10 years old. I fell in love with a transistor radio. For many years, I put it on the pillow to play music when I was sleeping. This is the first, and I have experienced a lot after that, and there are hundreds of incredible components in the scientific exhibitions I have done. Now, when it comes to computers, things and commands, at the age of 10, I do n’t know how to discover a booklet called “Digital Logic”. I use it to graffiti on paper. At that time, I said, “Computers will be the love of my life.”
00:02:19 -saron yitbarek
In the 1960s, when Steve Wozniak was still in high school, he had the opportunity to put on the time -sharing system on a electrical terminal of General Electric (GE) at General Electric (GE), which is In the second episode, we introduced the system discussed in the GE-225 large machine.
00:02:37 -Steve Wozniak
There were neither books nor magazines that told you “what is the computer?”. I got it in high school … I remember I got a license … Go to participate in a test, test a small device we only had a few days ago. It is a Teletype connected to the time -sharing system, which can run some programs written in Basic language on this. I did some experiments above and sighed: “Well, this basic is a bit simple.”
00:02:58 -saron yitbarek
In the last year of his high school, Wozniak’s electronic teacher arranged him to go to a local company in Senville, California Sylvania to learn how to program for their computer.
00:03:10 -Steve Wozniak
My electronic teacher asked me to go to a company and programming on a Fortran language every week on an IBM 1170. I think 1170 is probably the number of this computer. I didn’t see its architecture at the time. But one day when I went there, I saw a book called “Small Computer Handbook” on an engineer’s table, describing the PDP-8 small computer Minicomputer.
00:03:33 -Saron Yitbarek
In episode 1, we introduced the story told in the book “The Soul of a New Machine”, which tells the story about how the small computer Eagle of the GM Data General Eagle fights the Digital Equipment Corporation of Digital Equipment Corporation Small computer VAX. PDP-8 is the predecessor of VAX, and it is also the first small computer company for digital equipment companies.
00:03:53 -Steve Wozniak
They asked me that manual, gave it to me. I took it home to study. My God, this manual records what different 1 and 0 representing all small registers mean, what instructions do, and how the data is stored in memory. Oh my god. So I started sitting on the paper and wrote: “I want to know if I can design a computer.” This is an important start for me. I got this booklet and I can order a manual to get parts. The question at this time is how to find a computer company and get the address of the company?
Stanford straight accelerator center, I can go to drive, and the smartest people in the world do not lock the door (so there will be the door there). I will go on Sunday and walk in their main building. I found the library on the second floor there and sat down. There were computer journals and magazines there. You can also order a manual on the small card in the library. I ordered a manual of a universal data company, which shows the name of the president, operation supervisor, software and engineering director. But you know that it is not what I want.
I want to know the meaning of 1 and 0. On the last page, it shows an instruction, which is an arithmetic instruction. I am used to 56 instructions for each computer. Each instruction, each small bit, has their respective meaning. A Bit may represent the place where it is set up before the addition. The other three Bit may mean you need to do addition, subtraction, heterogeneity, or other operations. Then the other bites will ask: Wait a minute, do you want to make up the result of the operation or the result of the displacement operation? Is the displacement operation in place? Each bit has its own meaning.
I sat down and was designed to design a computer every weekend, and the small computer came out at that time. I sit down and design it. Each meaningful bit is actually a line connected to the chip to achieve specific functions. Its chip number is half of the other small computers I designed, and the work is as good as working as well as well. Essence On my wall, the poster sent by the brochure was just like an ordinary computer equipment. It was placed in the rack because it was a front panel. It also represents 0 and 1, all weird things.
And they have another picture, just like the desktop machine on the desktop. This has aroused my interest. How can you imagine that the computer can be placed on the table? I told my father that I fell in love with it and said to my father, “One day I will have a 4K universal data company’s Nova brand.” Why is the size of 4K? Because 4K space is required to run the Fortran used by my programming, or language such as Algol, PL/I, any of the programming language that requires 4K. I never used Basic programming before. When I told my father, he said that the computer was as expensive as the house. I replied, “Then I live in the apartment.” At that time Although the computer that can be really used, although it is necessary to switch 1 and 0 all day and use the button to save it in memory, this is what I want, it is even more important than the house.
00:06:42 -Saron Yitbarek
The 16 -bit NOVA brand small computer of GM is the predecessor of 32 -bit computer Eclipse, which is the one with the first episode of Eagle. In fact, it is NOVA’s small computer inspired Woz’s engineering design concept.
00:06:59 -Steve Wozniak
This computer taught me that I should always be designed with existing components to use the least structure and parts. That’s what I am very good at. I have been engaged in design work, and I always try to use less architecture with chips. If it is designed around the existing chips, in a sense, it can be understood as less components, cleaner and less workloads. Later, this also became a mantra I designed. I always seek simplicity, direct, and easy to understand. Do not build such complicated things: let a job run on 20 chips, realize the correct functions, obtain the correct signal, and signal, and the correct signal, and a correct signal, and a correct signal, and a correct signal, and a correct signal, and a correct signal, and a correct signal, and a correct signal. It is a simple and direct method.
00:07:39 -Saron Yitbarek
Woz’s design concept reminds me of the PALM company we mentioned in episode 5 to develop the Zen of PALM: make it simple.
Remember the 3rd episode of the Altair 8800 and the birth of personal computers? Steve Wozniake participated in a decisive first meeting of the self -made computer club, when he had been making his own version of the computer.
00:08:07 -Steve Wozniak
There, I showed the design of various video games, such as Altair games, and I even designed “jailbreak” for Altair. I also saw the predecessor of the Internet today: ArpAnet, and it started only about five or six computers in the country at the beginning. I saw someone on it, and then I already knew how to design something. I can use my TV as an output, and I have done it for video games. So I made a small terminal with a keyboard and spent $ 60. At that time, this was the most expensive part of these things. I have a keyboard and a video display. I can contact ArpaNet through the phone line. In those days, it is very slow to send a text through a very slow telephone line modem. give me. I can also switch to the computer of the University of California Los Angeles and read files and run the program on it. This is incredible!
I heard that a club is going to be established and has not been named yet, just a group of technical enthusiasts. I think, “Oh, God! I want to show off. I have a small design. No one knows that I can actually use my own TV to display. I want to show off my design and spread it. I will become a one Heroes. “After I arrived at the club, everyone there was talking about this thing called Altair. It appeared on the cover of the Magazine Popular Electronics, but I knew nothing about it. Some people in this club have visited that company, they are talking about you can buy a computer at $ 400 now. This is a machine with only 256 bytes of memory, which uses static memory. Intel’s data manual and Intel microprocessor are used. Intel showed the use of these switches and lights in this way, and then you can have a small system to enter 1 and 0.
Before that, I designed my computer with the chip I bought five years ago. I have done these things, so I know what these people are looking at, and $ 400 is affordable for one person. Designers must be designed around static memory, which is the most expensive part of the computer, which is why it only has 256 bytes of memory. But if you must have 4K memory to use a programming language, the cost of these static memory is too high, which is beyond the ability of any normal person, so we will not even think that it is a useful thing to do useful things. computer. What is useful? When you encounter problems, enter the program to solve the problem.
Now I sit there and think. I work in HP to study a calculator that allows people to use, and I have small machines that can communicate with a computer on Arpnet. I said, “Wait a minute.” I found that the price of the microprocessor finally dropped. Intel’s single microprocessor is $ 400, I can’t afford it, Altair is based on it. As a HP employee, I can spend $ 40 to buy a Motorola 6800. Therefore, I designed a computer with a microprocessor and memory, not the static memory of 32 chips worth 32 chips. It only needs 8 dynamic memory chips, and then there are 5 other chips to help it circulate, so that it does not cause loss of data. This is the so -called refresh.
I designed a computer around Motorola’s 6800, and then a company launched a 6502 microprocessor at a exhibition at San Francisco. I bought the microprocessor. You know, the formula of the entire design computer is in my mind. I will soon have my own computer, and I do it.
00:11:17 -saron yitbarek
Woz is not a loyal fan of Basic language. However, with the start of Microsoft’s software business: the launch of Altair Basic, he realized that Bill Gates and Paul Allen’s BASIC version will be widely used.
00:11:31 -Steve Wozniak
As soon as Altair appeared in our club, we got the news. Bill Gates and Paul Allen have developed BASIC for it. My sense of smell tells me that the key role of home computers is no longer like a computer in the traditional sense, nor is it in inventory, sales data, and employment rates. All these large companies use things to do with large machines. No, it will be a game. The key is the game, which is BASIC. I use Fortran, Algol and PL/I, as well as some assembly languages and scientific computing languages. Except for the three days of high school, I have never touched the Basic language in my life because I think this is a child’s language.
This is not the language that our scientists really use. I said, “This machine must be equipped with the BASIC environment.” The problem is that no one else has assisted me to work. This means that I must not only develop hardware, but also write the BASIC language. I have never taken a course of writing language, so I wrote my own Basic language. I went to HP, who worked at night, opened the BASIC manual, and recorded all the instructions of Basic on the paper. I don’t realize that the Basic is not the Basic, and the type of Basic language used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) that the digital device company mentioned in all books, and the kind that Bill Gates has also written. The method of words is completely a different language.
They are completely different from HP. At that time, I thought that you wrote a Basic language, and you used your computer to run the basic. This is the same everywhere. But this is not the case. So this is a key. Altair realizes that now it must have a language. This language must be the Basic language, otherwise people will not put it at home.
00:13:03 -Saron Yitbarek
In episode 4, we understand how the floppy disk is generated, but this portable storage method becomes ubiquitous with the invention of the disk drive of the Apple II. Steve Wozniak created this beautiful hardware in two weeks under huge pressure. This is his story.
00:13:25 -Steve Wozniak
In fact, Apple encountered a problem. Our Apple II computers initially used box tapes. This means that you need to perform manual operation. If you need a specific program, search in the box tape, find this program in the tape, put it in a tape player, and then read it into the computer. This is not like you can enter the “Run Checkbook” command to run a check -thin program. I hope that one day to reach that level, we hold a employee meeting. They allow Apple … Apple, which has not been established in less than a year, and CES exhibitions from the three personal computer companies, COMMODOR and Radio Shack, participated in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Wow! Except in the movie, I have never seen Las Vegas. I want to go there, at our employee conference, “Well, we only plan to send three marketers.” Mike Markkula said that he was responsible for marketing and was our investor. Jobs has the same shares. Steve Jobs will go, and our salesman Gene Carter will also go. I was thinking about how to go at the time, but I was embarrassed to say, “Hey! I am one of the founders, let me see Las Vegas! Pay money to let me go.” So I raised my hand, I I don’t know why I did it at that time. The exhibition started two weeks later. After raising my hands, I tried to find a topic: “If we have a floppy disk, can I show it on the exhibition?” Mike Markkula replied: “Of course!” He is the person in our company. The ball kicked me again.
If you know the software and hardware, I can develop a floppy disk, and to achieve “Run Checkbook” on this floppy disk. To do this within two weeks, they have to take me to Vica to Vica S.. If they want to introduce the soft disk at the exhibition, they have to bring me. For this reason, I work every day, regardless of day and night, New Year’s Day, Christmas, every day is working.
At first I focused on the five -inch soft disk of Shugart Company. I stared at it and carried out the reverse project in my mind to remove everything. And 1, every 4 microsecond, I can use a line to provide these data from my computer. “So I took out all the shugart digital chips, all chips that stepped tracks, and switched between the rails to use so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called so -called Step motor, there are A, B, C, D phase, each phase separate. A is the first track, then B-C, now the second orbit, and then the D-A, the third track. I removed their 20 chips from the beginning and said to myself, “I only need to use as little circuits as possible.”
Finally, I think of using a small chip of 7 dollars 1 dollars, you can write these data positions at a time in 4 microseconds to meet the specifications of the floppy disk. My computer can calculate the 0 and 1 I need to send in different data coding forms. But even more difficult is that when I put it where I can write it, I can use the oscilloscope to see the signal changes high and low, but I don’t know where it starts and stops. Now I have to read it.
In order to read it, there is a bit coming in, and then what you need to do is to wait … it will switch within 4 or 8 micrists, so the time is about 6 microseconds. During that time, the signal from high to low or from low to low? “I need a lot of chips, maybe 10 to 20, who knows this? The timer in it will determine when to really make a signal flip decision. Then I said, “I have a 7 MHz clock, I make a so -called state machine.” When I was in the third grade of college, I took a state machine course. The status machine usually has an address to identify the present now. The location, or a state number. I just thought of entering the address of a small ROM chip. I now have this 256 * 8 ROM chip in my hand.
I will put the address in that state, which determines its current position, and then puts the Bit in the soft disk to read the head. I put the Bit that read it in, ROM determined my next state, and then these bites appeared in the next state. I can flip the 28 cycles under the condition of 7 MHz, which is equivalent to 4 microseconds, which can allow it to enter stage 1. stage 2, stage 3 … stage 28, and finally around 40, it will make it, it will make it, it will make it, it will make it. It will make it. It will make it. It will make it. It will make it. It will make it. Decision: Did I get the pulse? I want to move one 0 or 1 to the register and put it in a computer.
The whole process only requires two chips to read all data. Looking back at the past, I don’t know how the wonderful thoughts in my mind poured out. I just observe where the problem is, what is the minimum number of parts doing this work, not it used to … because I didn’t know how it was done before. I have a high school students named Randy Wigginton who have been assisting me in those days. When I finished all my work, I couldn’t help but say, “Why do they sell the circuit boards of the computers such as Altair and S-100?”
I took it out, I think it was a NORTH Star’s 8 -inch floppy disk or something. I looked at their circuit board with 50 chips on it. There are only 8 of me, I can control two floppy drives and work normally. We introduced it at the exhibition. I went to Las Vegas, and I was going to teach my high school friend Randy to play dice. He also won me $ 35. This is a big and important difference, because for users, it is a huge progress to run a program.
00:18:21 -Saron Yitbarek
In episode 6, we learned about the new generation of maker, the people behind the open source hardware movement. This movement was compared with “self -made computer clubs” and all cooperation and innovation at that time. We asked Woz, what he thought of the creativity and openness of the hardware field again.
00:18:44 -Steve Wozniak
Yes, I think so too. You should always make something, and share what you have, so that others can use their own skills and experience to expand it, do a more novel thing than you thought, and apply it to the world to the world to the world In different areas, it is not just one of the small applications you understand. I fully agree. Now many embedded processors, some people have made such a microprocessor, which is actually more like making a business card. Its thick thickness is like a business card with only a flat chip above. You should not know, it can also insert into the USB interface. He spent $ 2 to build a complete Linux computer.
These are so exciting. I made a small PDP-8 kit, which they called PIDP-8. The Raspberry Pi is a computer, and this kit has all the lights and switches of the old PDP-8 small computers. It can also run some PDP-8 programs at the time. The maximum memory of PDP-8 is only 4K, which is how you connect it to other things. The current processor is the software in the Raspberry Pi. You can now connect the Raspberry Pi to the sensor and the output device, and people will want to perform experiments and exploration.
Back to the process of building some retro computers, it will definitely teach you how to connect hardware to hardware, how to connect it, and how to use it to do more things. What can I do not do yet? It may be a bit different. This is what I like. Independent people are often students. I want to learn, I want to try something without any value for life. I look back at this series of projects, which may have 10 or 15 projects without any value. They were just something I thought at the time: “Maybe I can do this, I will try to put this together, and I will build this.” If you know the internal structure of the chip, you can find out that the entire circuit is the entire circuit is that it is How to work.
00:20:28 -saron yitbarek
As one of Apple’s founders, Steve Wozniak is a symbol of modern technology. But for him, success has nothing to do with fame. The most important thing is to let his work be seen, and the work begins with the command line.
00:20:45 -Steve Wozniak
In my life, even before Apple, I made a lot of projects for the company. For example, the first hotel movie system in history, the time code of the TV station using a one -inch tape. I am doing various circuits and I have been proud of my project. I hope other engineers can also see my work, because an engineer can see what ordinary people can’t see. It’s not what it does, how it is constructed. I want them to see it and marvel for my engineering skills.
Recently, I won the IEEE bonus. This is the highest recognition of other engineers you can get in your life. I mean, it almost made me tears. This is what I want. It is not founding a company, not a creation of an industry, but wanting to be famous for a great engineer. Now the engineers can see what I do, they see its effect, but they can’t look at my schematic diagram and code say, “How do you write these code?”
This is one of the most meaningful awards I have won in my life. Because that’s what I always want, no one knows. Everyone thinks, “Oh, my first computer is Apple II. I do this on it and run these procedures in school. Wow, you designed it!” That’s cool. But they are not from the perspective of the project.
00:21:58 -Saron Yitbarek
Thank you, Steve Wozniak, thank you for participating in our “Code Hero” interview. Before the end of this season, I would like to invite a special guest to tell everyone the situation in the fifth season.
00:22:10 -Clive Thompson
I am the author of Clav Thompson Clive Thompson, the author of “Programmer Coders”. In the fifth season, I will be a guest next to Saron, telling the developer’s career. Don’t miss it.
00:22:21 -Saron Yitbarek
“Code Hero” is the original podcast of Red Hat. Please visit redhat.com/commandlineheroes to see all the excellent research we have heard of the hardware you heard last season. I am Saron Yitbarek,
00:22:34 -Steve Wozniak
I am Steve Wozniak. Life is endless.
Author: Red Hat Topic: Bestony Translator: xiao-SONG-123 School Division: Pityonline, WXY
This article was compiled by LCRH, launched by LINUX China honor