Observation Agricultural Landscape Vegetable Facilitarian Wasteless Cultivation Model and Supporting Equipment and Cultivation Technology
Sightseeing agricultural landscape vegetable facilities without soil cultivation mode and supporting equipment and cultivation technology
Based on the characteristics of bright colors, strange shapes, odor, and unique charm, it has been widely used in agricultural tourism, garden landscape, garden greening and other fields in recent years. The diversified trend of development shows the exploration and innovation of agricultural science and technology and garden landscape design in the agricultural field.
Due to the restrictions on natural climate, the design of vegetable landscapes needs to be fully used to cultivate facilities, and the environmental conditions such as artificial creation and regulating temperature, humidity, lighting, water and fertilizer are used to achieve the anniversary of the vegetable landscape in the greenhouse. At present, the form of vegetable landscapes mostly adopts diverse plant cultivation methods and technical support, such as routine soil cultivation methods such as vegetable flower beds, vegetable flowers, potted landscapes, and greening greening. The cultivation model is different from the conventional production cultivation. In the application, the tourism -free cultivation technology needs to pay more attention to the artistic and three -dimensional method of the variety matching and the cultivation model, such as design curve and diagonal planting. Cultivation technologies such as type cultivation, which gives the cultivation process with deeper cultivation technology, culture, and artistic connotation, and improve the effect of tourism. This article will focus on introducing the cultivation technology of landscape vegetable facilities from the aspects of soil -free cultivation facilities, selection of vegetable varieties and cultivation technology, in order to provide technical reference for the application of vegetables in tourism agriculture.
Landscape Vegetable Facilities Common Model and Supporting Equipment for Earth Cultivation
At present, soil -free cultivation technology is used in the cultivation model of landscape shapes, such as: pipe -type cultivation model, standing (hold) column cultivation mode, wall cultivation mode, fog cultivation mode, rock wool matrix cultivation mode, tree -based cultivation Mode, cultivation mode in empty grooves, mobile multi -layer three -dimensional track cultivation mode, etc.
Pipe -type cultivation mode Pipe -type hydroponic system
(Figure 1 ～ 2)
It is assembled and transformed by PVC pipes. It is mainly composed of four parts: cultivation pipeline, setting mantle, supporting frame, and circulating control system. The pipeline matrix training device is composed of three parts: the setting groove, the support frame, and the water and fertilizer. These two cultivation pipes can be made into different forms such as plane, slope, and facade, and can be flexibly arranged according to different spaces and styling. The crops are planted in the planting slot. According to the plant spacing of different crops and the flexible layout pipeline spacing, the greenhouse space and light utilization rate can be greatly improved. Essence
Standing (holding) column cultivation mode
Li (hold) column system
Generally, it includes cultivation pots, fixing bowls, carriers in the middle column, column cap, storage box, and water supply system. The shape of the cultivation pot can also be customized according to the requirements of the landscape, such as petals, geometric graphics, etc.; Supply time. Because it is assembled, its height and quantity can be selected at will according to the needs of the landscape. Therefore, the combination of the combination is large. The assembly pillars can be rotated freely by manual promotion, so that the plants on the column can evenly light up. Such devices are suitable for a variety of plant growth, especially the short -straw plants with smaller plant types. The nutritional solution of the substrate supply liquid supply system is unimmourished, and it is mainly composed of pumps, pipes, droplets, and timer -confession timers. Most devices use the bottom to top or from the upper or the upper drip.
Wall -type cultivation mode
The wall cultivation mode (Figure 4) is an extended soil -free cultivation technology from the plane structure to the three -dimensional structure of the wall. Its facilities are mainly composed of cultivation boards, planting cups, supporting skeleton, nutritional fluid circulation systems and control systems. In the landscape design, several veneer is usually spliced into a large -scale cultivation wall, and it is freely combined into various shapes and heights. The use of wall cultivation can be arranged into fun maze, plant room walls and other landscapes. This model is more suitable for cultivating crops such as one year’s leafy vegetables, dwarf flowers, and strawberries. It is an excellent choice to lay up landscapes such as ecological restaurants, plant mazes or partition walls. The substrate cultivation liquid supply system cannot be used in a circular nutrient solution, and its liquid supply system is mainly composed of the pump, dropper system, and the timer confession timer.
The main equipment of the fog training mode (Figure 5) consists of two parts: cultivation slot and liquid supply system. The cultivation slot can be made of hard plastic board, foam plastic plate, wooden board or cement concrete, and the shape can also be diversified according to the requirements of the landscape. The function of the cultivation groove is mainly to store nutrient solution and return the excess nutrient solution after atomizing to the storage tank. In addition, the size of the internal space of the cultivation slot also requires that the specific principle is that the atomized nozzle in the groove must have enough space to spray the nutrient solution evenly on the root system of each plant. The liquid supply system is composed of liquid storage tanks, pumps, pipes, filters, nozzles, and ultrasonic fog machines. Nutrition liquid atomization not only solves the problem of the root system, but also improves the absorption rate of nutrients.
Rock wool matrix cultivation mode
Rock wool cultivation mode
The supporting facilities mainly include the integrated drip irrigation facilities and rock wool cultivation facilities. Water fertilizer integrated tubing facilities are mainly composed of fertilizer pump equipment, fat storage system, fertilizer system, water fertilizer control system, drip irrigation system, etc. The rock wool cultivation system includes brackets, rock wool blocks and rock wool strips. Set the cultivation on the bracket to recover excess nutrient solution. The rock wool block is placed on the rock wool strip. When planting, place the seeds in the rock cubes for seedlings. When the seedlings grow, Putting on rock wool strips, no need to transplant seedlings, which is more conducive to slowing seedlings. At the same time, the characteristics of rock wool are loose and porous, making the plant root system easily interspersed, breathable, good water holding performance, effectively improve the growth of plant root systems, and ensure the full absorption of supply nutrients.
Tree cultivation mode
It is also one of the important means of creating vegetable landscapes. It is through the technologies such as pruning trimming, nutritional control, and environmental regulation to make tomatoes, cucumber, melon, watermelon and other crops as trees. , Watermelon tree and so on. Tree cultivation needs to be equipped with facilities such as cultivation grooves, nutritional liquid pools, liquids, and return fluids. Compared with ordinary cultivation, tree cultivation needs to provide greater growth space for the crop root system and provide a more suitable growth environment for crops. Therefore, the technical requirements for cultivation management are strict.
Empty slot cultivation mode
Earth -free cultivation (Figure 8) is a form of high -efficiency cubes. Through the way of suspending the cultivation groove, the upper layer is planted and the ground can also be planted on the ground. Make full use of limited greenhouse space and solar energy to significantly increase the number of plants and output of crops in the unit area. Because of its beauty and novelty, it can be applied to urban tourism agriculture, which is convenient for field operations and tourists to walk. The PVC pipe can be selected for the grooves, or the hard and light metal material can be used. The groove is lifted up with a wire rope, and the distance is 50 cm. If in the sunlight greenhouse, east -west extension and north -south steps should be used; if in the continuous greenhouse, the east -west parallel formula should be used in north to south. If the budget is sufficient, you can add a highly regulatory device. The nutrient solution circulating irrigation system consists of a reservoir, a submersible pump, a supervisor, a branch, a drip, a water return pipe and a timer. The nutrient solution is well equipped in the water storage tank. The root of each crop is provided by the dripping arrow, which can be used in a circular to achieve the role of water saving and fertilizer.
Mobile multi -layer three -dimensional track cultivation mode
Utilizing the longitudinal and multi -layered structure design, through automatic rotation, each plant can obtain uniform lighting to more effectively promote plant growth and greatly enhance the quality of vegetables. At the same time, combined with the supplies of the return liquid system, each plant can automatically fix the parameters set by the computer process order and touch screen controller to achieve fixed pouring and fixed -point harvesting, which can save more than half of the labor cost. At the same time 3 times the planting method.
Facilities cultivation variety
Observation Vegetables are often divided into four categories: ① Observation of leafy vegetables, such vegetables are colorful and bright, with diverse leaves, and high ornamental value. Such as colorful leafy vegetables, including 甘 如, purple cabbage, black vegetables, cabbage, and cabbage; aromatic vegetables, including beef, nepeo, parsley, etc.; Wild vegetables, including amaranth, celery celery, amaranth, fern, etc.; Pharmaceutical leafy vegetables, including dandelion, front of cars, Houttuynia cordata, orangeflower, plate blue root, etc.; The beautiful and colorful perennial vegetables are equal.
In recent years, the green treasure tower cauliflower, purple broccoli, etc. have also become the new favorite of most landscape arrangements; ③ Fruit -oriented vegetables. Such vegetables are generally beautiful and colorful. Or long -term preservation of rewards, the landscape shape is more suitable for matrix cultivation. Such as tomato fruits, cherry tomatoes, ornamental peppers, colored sweet peppers, egg eggplant, etc.; Melons include various ornamental pumpkin, mini pumpkin, gourd, snake melon, loofah, etc. , Dutch beans, etc. Most of the secondary vegetables can grow up, suitable for fence -type cultivation, with the effect of three -dimensional greening; ④ 次 次 次 次. Such vegetables are mainly used for viewing and consumption with their hypertrophic meat roots. Purple Meng Huai Mountain, etc., is mostly suitable for matrix cultivation.
Earthless cultivation technology of various landscape vegetables
Selection of cultivation season
Large -seated leaves and flowers are low -temperature, which are low -temperature, cold, cold, not high temperature, and suitable for growth temperature by 15 ~ 25 ° C. Specifies can be determined according to the local climate conditions. For example, in the Guangdong Province in September to March of the following year, it is suitable for breeding, and in October to May is the best season of viewing.
Fruits of fruits are mainly eggplant and fruits and melon varieties. The greenhouse cultivation of eggplant fruits can be planted in two per year, sowing from January to February and July to August. In February of the year, the viewing period.南方地区瓜类一般可以种植2~3 茬,分别是春植2 月份播种,4 月份进入结果期;夏植6 月份播种,8 月份进入结果期; 秋植9 月份播种,11 月份开始结果,结果The viewing period can last for 1 to 2 months.
Guan root vegetables mainly include radish, sweet potatoes, potatoes, Huaishan, and root medicinal materials. Radish in summer is generally sowed in May to June, entered the viewing period in July to August, sowing in autumn and July, and in September to the viewing period. Sweet potatoes and potatoes are mostly asexual through tuber and cuttings. It can be planted in the southern greenhouse a year. Among them, spring potatoes are planted in March to April, autumn potatoes are planted in August, and early winter potatoes are planted in October. Huaishan is usually planted in March to August. Most of the Chinese medicinal materials are perennial plants, which can be seen all year round.
Selection of soilless cultivation
The growth of the leafy categories is short, the growth rate is fast, and there is no soil planting and breeding seedlings for 15-30 days. It can be harvested in about 20 to 40 days after planting. Leaf -seeing vegetables are small, hydroponic and matrix are available. Most of the landscape cultivation adopts pipelines, columns and wall -type soilless cultivation forms combined with matrix and hydroponic.
The growing period of flowering vegetables is long, and the period of soilless cultivation seedlings is generally 25-30 days. After planting, it can be turned into flowers at about 60 to 70 days to achieve the best viewing period. The plant type of flowers and vegetables is large, hydroponic is not easy to fix the plants, and the matrix cultivation is easier to fix the plants to facilitate landscaping. The landscaping of flowers and vegetables also adopts the pipeline, potted, column and wall -type soil -free cultivation forms of matrix cultivation.
The viewing period of fruits and vegetables is long, and ordinary field cultivation. As a result, the period is generally about 30 to 50 days. The greenhouse is cultivated without soil cultivation. For 6 months. The plant type of fruits and vegetables is generally tall. The soil -free cultivation requires a hanging rope to guide the vines, which is convenient for fixed plants. The hydroponic also has a special fixed plate fixing crop root. At present, fruit -seeking vegetables are generally used in various forms such as spray and rock wool cultivation technology combined with pipelines, potted plants, and three -dimensional forms.
Glittering vegetables usually use air matrix potted plants in landscape cultivation. After the root stems are swollen into the viewing period, the flower pot can be half to expose the rhizome to watch. For example, sweet potatoes, air potatoes, etc.
Seedling and planting
Vegetables are mostly used for seedlings or sponge seedlings. The matrix nutritional soil used in matrix seedlings is configured by peat: perlite = 2: 1. Before sowing, the matrix soil should be permeated. Generally, 1-2 seeds per hole should be sowed, and then the seeds are covered with peat soil. Dripping water to the surface wet. When the seedlings grow to 5 ~ 6 genuine leaves, it can be planted.
Plant the sponge to raise seedlings, soak the sponge in advance, so that the sponge can suck water, and then clamp the seeds of the sprouts on the upper end of the wet sponge 3 to 5 mm, pour water into the pot, about 1/3 of the sponge. After the leaves grow, the water can be replaced with a nutrient solution with a concentration of 1/3 doses. The nutrient solution is replaced once 3 to 4 days a month. When the seedlings grow to 4 ~ 5 leaves, the plant is planted. In addition, the continuity and continuity of the landscape and picking of the tourism cultivation requires the short tourism period of leafy vegetables. Therefore, the breeding of leaf vegetables must be in batches, a small number of seedlings, and the harvest of them one after another. Sexual settings or harvesting surfaces are too large, and the phenomenon of breeding landscapes occurs, affecting the ornamental effect.
The matrix cultivation can be directly placed in the cultivation tank directly, and then inserted a nutrient solution droplet head at 7 ~ 10 cm from the root of the seedlings. It should be noted that the distance and position adjustment of the dripping head and the roots should be adjusted. It is too close to the roots of the seedlings and it is easy to burn seedlings. It is too far away to absorb nutrients. In addition, the drops should be replaced frequently so that the roots of the crops can grow evenly. Before the planting planting, clean the peat soil at the root, and then fix the seedlings with the planting cup, and then plant it into the cultivation groove to prevent the peat soil polluting nutrient solution and blocking circulation system. Because the sponge seedlings do not contact the peat soil throughout the process, the seedlings do not need to be cleaned. They can be placed directly into the planting cup, and then placed in the holes in the planting slot. The water level in the planting slot is racked to the nutrient solution that can immerse 1/2 of the planting cup, which is conducive to the growth of the root. Plant density can be adjusted according to the specific landscape design.
Mobile multi -layer three -dimensional track cultivation mode
◆ Nutrition solution formula selection
There are many types of nutrient solution suitable for leafy vegetables. You can use leafy vegetables for basic formulas, such as the Japanese garden test formula (Table 1), South China Agricultural University leaf vegetables A, B formula (Table 2), green leafy vegetables, and the formula of the green leafy vegetables. Yamazaki Aemisha formula, lettuce formula (1978), South China Agricultural University of Agricultural University of Agricultural University of Agricultural University of Anti -Vegetable Formula, Spinach Formula, Lettuce Formula, etc.
Flowers and fruits and vegetable nutritional liquid formulas can refer to leafy dishes formula. For example, the Japanese garden test formula can also be referred to the Fruit and vegetable formula of South China Agricultural University (Table 3), and the Rock Storlon Titan Tunan Formula of the Dutch Greenery Research Institute (Table 4 ), Cucumber formula, cherry tomato formula, etc.
Glitting vegetable nutritional liquid formula can refer to the special formula of root dishes, such as cherry radish nutrition solution formula (Table 5), or refer to South China Agricultural University fruit and vegetable formula, etc., can be added and reduced in a timely manner according to the laws of nutritional needs of vegetables Essence
Table 1 Green leaf vegetables formula (a lot of elements)
Table 2 Formula A (a lot of elements) in South China Agricultural University (a lot)
Table 3 Fruit and vegetable formula of South China Agricultural University (a lot of elements)
Table 4 The Rock Storing Titan Tunan Formula (a lot of elements)
Table 5 Cherry radish nutrition solution formula (a lot of elements)
◆ PH and concentration management of nutrient solution
The pH (pH) of the nutrient solution is usually adjusted to 5.5 ~ 6.5, which is suitable for most crops. It is very few crops that require acidic and alkali. They can be adjusted with pH according to the specific requirements of the crop. The concentration of nutrient solution is generally planted in the first week of EC control at 1.4 ~ 1.6 ms/cm, and the second week is transferred to about 1.8 ~ 2.0 ms/cm.
◆ The irrigation time and irrigation amount of nutrient solution
The circular system must set the timer, and the pump cycle is opened every hour during the day, and the cycle of 10 ~ 15 min is circulated every 2 hours in summer at night. The drip irrigation system is set according to the amount of fertilizer of the crop. The fat is required 5-8 times a day, 3 min each day; the crops with poor fertilizer dick 2 to 4 times a day, each time 3 min.
◆ Cultivation management
Temperature and humidity management
Under the conditions of greenhouses, the difference between the temperature of the vertical space and the strength of light and weakness have significant impact on the growth and development of three -dimensional cultivation vegetables. For example, in the greenhouse temperature in the greenhouse in Guangdong, the temperature difference between the space of the space of more than 2 m from the ground is at least 8-10 ° C, and the difference in winter is 3 ~ 4 ° C. Perform three -dimensional distribution. Generally, the suitable growth temperature of the warmth variety is 20 ~ 35 ° C, and the suitable growth temperature of the cold variety is 10 ~ 20 ° C. In addition, the color of the color or the ball of the ball requires that the temperature difference between day and night is above 8 ~ 10 ° C, and the landscape effect is better. Therefore, the sightseeing greenhouse requires the configuration of temperature control and wet equipment. It is generally suitable for controlling at 10 ~ 30 ° C. In addition, most ornamental vegetables require 60%~ 75%of the relative humidity of the air. Overwhelming and dampness and rotting, excessive drying can cause water loss and dryness of the edges of the leaves and promote fibrosis and affect the ornamental effect.
Landscape cultivation pays more attention to the pruning pruning than production cultivation. Generally, the first branches of eggplant fruits are retained for 2 days. In the future, only one branch is retained to ensure that each plant has only two branches to grow upwards. The whole branches of melon generally cannot grow upward by the main vines before the appearance of female flowers, and the side vines should be completely knocked off. You can let the main vine first grow around the groove surface or planting bag of the hydroponic plank or substrate. When the female flowers begin to appear, the main vine will grow upward. In order to facilitate artificial pollination and enhance the effectiveness of ornamental, when the main vine grows to about 2 m, it should be topped in time, and then choose 2 to 3 side vines in the nor gourd in the middle of the main vine. Leave a leaf topping after the last female flower. In addition, when the aging of the old leaves of the plant becomes yellow, it should be cut off in time.
In order to improve the effect of viewing and viewing, the greenhouse cultivation of fruits and vegetables also use insects or human workers to aid powder. Folk pollination can use bear bee biolite pollination technology. Human workers should be entrusted from 10: 00 ~ 11: 30 or 15: 00 ~ 16:00. The suitable temperature when the powder is 18 ~ 28 ° C.
◆ Diseases and insect worship prevention
Under the greenhouse conditions, the humidity and weak air flow, and the vegetables are susceptible to disease. The main diseases are frostmo, soft rot, and dark spots. Insect pests mainly include aphids, jumping, vegetable green worms, small vegetable moths, and medium. , Tea yellow mites, etc. Diseases are mainly preventive. Pharmacy can use 50% multi -bacteria 500 times liquid, methyltotobadin 500 times liquid, 72% agricultural rinsein 4000 times solution 7 to 10 days, 2 to 3 times in a row. After the onset of the onset, spray the ‘Kim Ladmir’ 800 times or ‘Antai Sheng’ 800 times or pyreoticin diluted 600 ~ 800 times or the ‘losing poison’+’giant star 121’ diluted 600 ~ 700 times, once every 7 days once 2 to 3 times in a row. Insect pests can be selected from 25% aphids and killing 1000 times liquid or pour fumes smoked agent. It is sprayed once every 5 days with 1000 times liquid of peridamine, 2 to 3 times in a row.