In order to make women feel more secure, what efforts have these cities made?
This article was originally published on March 31, 2022, the total 852 issue of “Looking at Oriental Weekly”, which was originally entitled “The Stone of the Mountains”.
“Looking at Oriental Weekly” reporter Liu Jiaxuan
The path to women’s friendship needs to be adapted to local conditions.
In Vienna, Austria, visitors watch posters and photos that require equal rights in Austrian women (Xu Liang/Photo)
At present, Changsha, Ordos, Shanghai, and Nanjing have successively proposed the vision of building women’s friendly cities or creating a women’s friendly city environment.
Depending on the development status of various places and the current status of urban construction, the path to women’s friendship needs to be adapted to local conditions. The practice of some overseas cities may become the stone of other mountains, providing reference and reference for Chinese cities.
Change from a photography exhibition
“Vienna is a model city for creating a female friendly city. It has been rated as the most livable city in the world by the Quality Index in the United States for 10 consecutive years. Part of the reason is that they focus on the design of women and children in urban development.” Qin Hongling, deputy to Beijing People’s Congress and dean of the School of Humanities of Beijing University of Architecture, told the Oriental Weekly.
Women’s friendly practice in Vienna has gone for more than 30 years.
In 1991, a city planner named Eva Kail held a photography exhibition called “Who has public space”. The exhibition recorded the daily life of eight Vienna women and girls, including a woman using a wheelchair.
These photos follow the footsteps of eight women through different routes through the city, recorded women’s travel status in public space, and triggered widespread discussion about the city’s space design and service objects.
In fact, photography exhibition is part of Eva Kyle’s promotion of female friendly space projects. Taking this photography exhibition as a incision, women in Vienna began to express their demands in urban space. The project collected their opinions on urban construction. Interests of street lights were added in 26 areas. More public seats are added for people to rest.
It was this photography exhibition that changed Vienna. In 1992, the Municipal Government of Vienna established a women’s office to integrate gender perspectives into public policies such as urban planning and design.
Since the 1990s, Vienna is committed to transformed from the needs of women and children to transform parks, sidewalks and street lighting, and other infrastructure, which has benefited the residents of the entire city.
For example, Eva Kyle designed an apartment building called “Female-Work-Werk-Stadt” in Vienna. There are 357 residential units in the building and close to public transportation stations. In each floor of this apartment building, there is a storage area for storage of storage, and there is sufficient open space for children to play. The apartment building is also equipped with kindergartens, pharmacies and community doctors’ office.
In terms of government public policies, legislation, and resource allocation, Vienna focuses on balanced different needs of different gender. The Municipal Government of Vienna requires that relevant departments must report twice a year how their projects benefit men and women equal. New housing development must meet the standards of gender sensitivity. Whether there is sufficient lighting in public places and parking lots is one of the prerequisites for the project to get government subsidies.
In response to the survey data of the number of people in the park after nine years old, Vienna has redesigned two parks. By increasing the sidewalk, it improves the accessability of the park, and built the volleyball court and the badminton stadium to attract girls to exercise to exercise. Essence In addition, these two parks also use beautifying landscapes to divide large open spaces into small number of small spaces, so that boys and girls can use different areas without competition.
On March 7, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ladies take women’s special buses
In 2006, the United Nations proposed the “Common Plan for the United Nations Women’s Friendship Cities”, advocating local governments to consider women’s problems and views in the planning and decision -making process, and support and encourage women to participate in all areas of urban life on the basis of equality with men.
One year later, Seoul launched the “Basic Regulations on Gender Equality in Seoul”, which proposed to strengthen the analysis and evaluation of gender impact, incorporate gender factors into government budgets, improve women’s policy participation, and strengthen cooperation with women’s groups. At the same time, Seoul also launched the “Women’s Friendship City Plan”.
The plan was implemented from 2007 to 2010, including 90 sub -projects, covering many fields such as roads, transportation, culture, housing, etc. It aims to integrate women’s perspectives into the overall urban policy to eliminate women’s encounter in daily life. The inconvenience and uneasy of the arrival.
In three years, Seoul has invested tens of billions of won to implement various measures to implement various conveniences, and it was awarded the UN Public Service Award in June 2010.
In terms of women’s friendship in the public toilet, by building a “female friendly city”, Seoul has added women’s toilets to transform the public toilet, so that women’s bathrooms are not only spacious, but also have sufficient light and have comprehensive parenting and makeup facilities.
In terms of road renovation, Seoul easily stumbled or stuck on the “坎” and floor tiles of the lady’s high heels. Essence
In addition, Seoul also opened 50,000 women’s exclusive parking spaces. These parking spaces marked with pink are for the purpose of ensuring women’s safety. The location is choosing to be close to the parking administrator or installed a closed -circuit TV monitoring probe.
Through the construction of the “Women’s Friendship City”, the urban facilities and services in Seoul, such as lighting conditions, identification recognition, vision permeability, and human and car diversion. The survey showed that one year after the project was launched, citizens’ satisfaction rose from 68.2%to 83.2%. In the field of women’s safety, citizen satisfaction has increased significantly: from 46%in 2007 to 70.3%in 2008.
On the basis of this plan, Seoul opened the “Women’s Special City 2.0” project in 2016, aiming to analyze and formulate improvement policies for women with relatively weak women’s security guarantee. These policies include: creating a 24 -hour peace environment for women by using intelligent technology; replacing the city’s aging street lights to LED safety lights; improving light pollution and emphasizing the safety of walkkers; increasing the number of subway security people The violence is ‘zero’ (zero) “and so on.
These measures have effectively improved the security environment of Seoul. At the same time, it also promoted the improvement of Seoul in the global city competitiveness ranking.
Focus on safety demands
Security is the core appeal of women’s urban space. British scholar G.Valentine takes British cities as an example to study the relationship between women’s sense of danger and public space design, and propose a specific evaluation of improving space design and improving women’s sense of security in public space in public space. index.
For example, the flyover is better than the underground passage, and white lighting is better than yellow lighting; the location of parking and entrances can be directly entered without the need to pass another passage; the subway channel should be based on the principle of shortness and width, and the surveillance of exports should be good; The rockery and other roads cannot be observed, nor should it hinder the sight, and there should be fewer walls; the monitoring of corners and corners should be better, and mirrors can be added to improve, and so on.
Some cities in Europe and the United States have also put forward the “women’s safety audit strategy”, which is a kind of participation tools based on gender and safety -based urban design, which is mainly used to understand women’s views on public space security.
It is worth mentioning that this audit strategy emphasizes participation, and women personally experience observation to examine the hidden dangers and risks of public space and reflect their true security experience. Based on this, it proposes the design and improvement of public space security. So as to help the city clarify the list of safety matters that should be considered.
The poor safety environment in Indian cities has breeds a lot of sexual violence against women. Based on this situation, the feminist research and communication and resource centers in India cooperated with the United Nations House of Resources Agency. Since 2004, it has conducted localized femininity audit on Delhi.
In 2013, Delhi appeared for female security audits with mobile phone applications as tools. Through this application, female users can score the streets and other public spaces based on lighting, visibility, population density, public security status, etc., and let users trust The person followed his action route.
Five years later, the program has 51,000 data points in Delhi, and cooperates with the planning and design department to make suggestions for women’s more friendly suggestions on how to make subway stations, bus stations, tourist attractions, public toilets and parks more friendly.
Similarly, Melbourne launched a mobile phone application called “Free To Be”, allowing women to identify and share public spaces that disturb or be afraid of them in cities, or to feel happy and safe. For example, the point of “dim street lights and unsafe at night” is marked as “bad point”, “sufficient light, more pedestrians, and police duty points” are marked as “good point”.
Qin Hongling believes that the experience and practices of overseas cities in terms of gender friendship mainly brings three inspiration to Chinese cities: first, we must pay attention to the collection and analysis of urban planning division of gender data and information; second, you can learn from women’s safety audit audits Strategies to improve the safety design and management level of urban space; third, on the basis of emphasizing the diversity of participation subjects, women can ensure that women obtain equal urban planning and design participation rights.
“When the urban planning and design departments solicit public opinion when they solicit public opinion through demonstration, hearing, symposium, and special groups, they should pay properly on the proportion of gender participation appropriately. Female consultants, actively listen to their suggestions, and give play to women’s gender roles and gender characteristics unique to women’s design and human settlement environmental optimization. “Qin Hongling said.
Source: Watch Oriental Weekly