Between the Leopard: Decorated from the gentleman leopard to leopard hidden



The leopard is a kind of guitar in the eyes of the Chinese people, and there is a “gentleman leopard” in the ancient language, “Nanshan Hidden Leopard”, which is used to compare the development of gentlemen and the sage. Whether it is an elephant, it is still an abstract cultural symbol, or as a witness that the central government has reduced the gap between the central government for the first time, Leopard has a long history and far-reaching cultural significance.

As early as the Yin Shang period, the mountain forest area in the Central Plains had a large number of wild leopards, and the number of leopards had a lot of rare black, and the history book recorded that the Xi Zhou Kaisheng’s Minister’s Subcommitte Satisfied In order to make it Zhou Wenwang, the song city, was presented, and he was a black leopard. According to the “Taiping Yushu · The Ministry, Volume 4”, the stream of “Rui Ying Tu”: “Wen Wang is arrested in the miles. Signature is born in Hui Tu Mountain to gain the Xuan Leopard, to offer, free of consistence “In addition, the leopard is also a food in the restaurant, the gourmet of the Towns of Shangyi, and is contained in the Xindu Huayi” Emperor’s Century “.”蹯 (ie, the bear’s palm), leopard tires (ie, popular place disks). ‘”


On Monday, leopard skin became a downtime. Zhou Wuwang asked the ministers to only wearing a leopard, so the leopard skin was fried in the market, and even the minister sold the thousands of food in the home, but still can’t afford it. “Taiping Yu Site · Beast, Volume 4 “Introducing” Pipe “to record the situation at the time:” Wu Wang is extravagant, 襜襜 (chān, short clothes to the front of the knee) Leopard Square to enter the temple, so leopard Gold. Submitted home, no leopard skin. “Of course, for Zhou Wuwang, this behavior is really a poor luxury, Quanzhong has different opinions,” Pipes · 揆度 “explains,” doctor Silver and its belongings with the city Tiger leopard skin, so the people of the mountains stab, if the beast is from the enemy of relatives, this Jun is in the DPRK, and the arm is better than the outside, the doctor has already scattered the property, thousands of people have received it Flow, this is the number of this, “Zhou Wuwang is so arranged, it is to let the tiger leopard to harm the people, but also avoid the wealth of the wealth, and ultimately let the people benefit, if it is like this, this is probably Chinese history. The first central government aims to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor, Zhou Wuwang really can be comparable.

Due to the rare rare of leopard skin, “leopard lesk diplomacy” has appeared. When Zhou Xuanwang was at position (the first 827-781), he handed a Han Han Tuan tribe to Han Hao. One monarch-minica is recorded in the “Book of Songs, Gian Han”, China, China: “Wang Xi Han Han, chasing it. It is homoked by North China, because of its Bo.” Leather, Lanta Huang Hao. “(” Mao Shi Justice, Volume 18 “explained” Red Legao “,” Mao Bacashi, black, said, Banta; Mao White and black, said white Leopard “) In the East Week period,” Pipes · Daxie “recorded Qi Qigong (the first 685-643 in place) In order to pay the small princes, under the suggestion of Guan Zhong,” Let Qi, Leopard, Xiao Hou “” Pipe · Xiao Yan “also records,” Yu Gong knows that the princes are also returned, so it will be a lighter, and the princes are in the 布, the deer is quadrite, and there is also a civil chant Leopard Perside, Qi Qigong adopted “the end of the arrest, the letter, and the trip,” In addition, the Di Di tribe also requested peace by making leopard skin to the vassal state, “Han Yizi · Yu Lao” is recorded: “The people have a sacred fox, and the pedicure of Xuanhu is in Jin Weigong (the first 636 – The first 628 is in place); “Zuo Chuan Gong Fourth Years” record: “There is no life (a mountain leader in Today, Shanxi Taiyuan) Jiafather makes Menglei Jin, because Wei Zhenzi (ie Jin Guo Qing Wei, the skin of the Tiger Leopard, in order to ask the people. “


Figure 1: Warring States wrong gold silver hunting mirror (Japan Yongqing Wencai)

At the time, the costumes made of leopard skin led the fashion trend of the upper class, with a symbol of gentlemen, which leaving a lot of records in the “Book of Songs”. “The Book of Songs, Zheng Feng, Lamb”, wrote: “Lamb, Leopard, Kong Wu Qi. He is a child, the state of the state, means the brave people of leopard sheep, such a gentleman can be China’s maintenance of legal officials. Chu Wang wearing the shoes made with leopard skin “Leopard (xì)” to show the gathering style, according to the records of “Zuo Chuan Zhaogong 12 years”, “Rain, Wang Pei, Qin Fu Tao (Qin Guoong Feather), Cui, Leopard, “Tang Dynasty, the money,” Leopard “:” Li Wei Leopard, Wen Cai Bin. The leopard is worth the tiger, and the gentleman is the same. ” Decoration, leopard “with the gentleman” : “Military (Note: Spring and Autumn Start, Han Wei Changzhi, Military Executive Judge) Popular skin, in order to system,” Of course, there are people who are ridiculous with leopards but don’t ridicule “The Book of Songs, Tang Feng, Lamb” expressed the Jinren to the Jin Guoqing Dafu high, I don’t know the dissatisfaction of the people of the body: “Lamb, self-people,” 即 “, arrogant) … Lamb (Yòu, also “sleeves”), self-cultivation. “

Figure 2: Xi Zhou Bo Budi and its inscription (Henan Museum Tibet)

In addition to being made into apparel, leopard skin is also made of an arrow target, becoming an indispensable instrument in “big shot” participated in the emperor. “Big Shoot” is an extremely important event in Zhou. According to the “Rituals and Sagittarius”, “the emperor will shoot the princes, Qing, the doctor, the sister”, and Zhou Tianzi selection of the nobles through the shot. According to “Zhou Li · Tianshi · Si Yu”, “Wang Daji, the Tiger Hou (Hou Big Target, Fangtou), Xiong Hou, Leopard Hou, set it (鹄 鹄 心, Fang Four Footage; the prince, the Xiong Hou, Leopard Hou; Qing Dafu, a total of the people, all of them, the people in different levels of people with different placestrips, Zhou Tianzi hosted by Zhou Tianzi Big shooting “The emperor uses the tiger skin target, the princes use the bear skin target, Qing Dafu uses a leopard skin. The reason why it is a special person who is selected as a very complicated etiquette, “It is better than music”, “It is better than music, and its festival is better than music”. The archery conducted a comprehensive investigation, so the results of the examinations directly determined the impression of the princes, Qing Dafu in the heart of the emperor, thereby finally determined its future fate: “More than the middle, we have to sacrifice, the number and the sacrifice There is a celebration, the number is not to make the sacrifice; the number is rich, and the number is made, “that is, in” big shot “, it can get the opportunity to sacrifice with Zhou Tianzi, participate in this The number of sacrifices will naturally get the seal of Zhou Tianzi, and it will be cut. In the case of Zhou Kang, the Zhou Kang period (the first 1020-1996) once, the Dabo 10 has been rewarded by Zhou Kang Wang, so it is cast a commemoration (Figure 2).


In addition, the Leopard tail also bearen a safe return of auspicious auspicious, and became the decoration of the weekly son travel team must hang, the so-called “pre-head [Tianzi Lu” ) Hey; the leopard can be reflected, so Guangzhi said: ‘Fox death, leopard death, the leopard can be reversed, the lack of the temple is in the lake “, that is, the leopard tail Out of the leopard to make a peaceful return (Note: not all the animals recognize the way, the same book has written “the tiger is lost outside the road”); but there is another one in history. Explanation, Jin Dynasty, Cui Leopard, “Ancient and Tail, Zhou Zhi” “Describe the gentleman, such as a young leopard to the adult leopard, and the emperor has become a humble gentleman.


It is because of the strong demand for leopard skin, leopard tail, leads to a lot of wild leopards in China to kill in the Zhou Dynasty, even “Zhuangzi · Mountain Trees” is inevitably sigh: “Fu Fengfoxanta, habitally, in the mountains … Is it a sin? The disaster of his skin is also. “In the late Spring and Autumn Period, Fan Wei (the first 536- 448 years) wrote in” Fanzi Metal “:” Leopard skin is from South County. “According to Fan Yu’s birthplace Chu Guo (now Henan Nanyang) people and later promulgate, “South County” should be a ride in the middle of the Yangtze River, it can be seen that the Leopard in the Central Plains is very rare.

Figure 3: War of the wrong gold and silver Tonghual Town, unearthed in the Tomb of the Warring States, Henan Museum

Figure 4: Shiba Town, East Tomb of the Warring States Lion Mountain Chu Wang (Xuzhou Museum Tibet)

Figure 5: Tonghual Town unearthed in Liu Sheng, Jingwang, Western Han Dynasty (Hebei Museum)

From the Warring States to the Western Han, the image of the leopard has also appeared in my words of literary works. In the original “Nine Songs, Mountain Ghost” recorded the female mountain ghost, and the Lanta pulling the car, the traoon came to the scene. : “Take the Red Leopa from the Treas, Xinyi Car.” In addition, people also made the image of the leopard to the town, used for the nobility bodily bored or seat. However, the most important change in this period is the success of the Chu Di’s aristocation to the wild leopard, and the traces of the neck of the bronal leopard town unearthed in the grave of the country (Figure 3), and the Tomb of the Lion Mountain is unearthed. On the neck of the stone town, you can see the collar and it has its own button on the top of the rope (Figure 4), which is the oldest physical test of the local retrienet in Chinese history. In addition, on a lacquer, a lacquer, a collar hunting, a collar hunting scene (Figure 6), which can feel the domesticated leopard is a great partner in the wild hunting.

Figure 6: Western Han Dynasty Painted Seven Leopard Paint Paint Pot and Its Details (Jingzhou Museum Tibet)

The team traveling in the Han Dynasty is still tailing with a leopard tail, but it has a more detailed provisions compared to the Zhou Dynasty, according to the Tang Dynasty Duyao “Tongxian, Li No. 24”: “Han Branch, Driving, Car 80 One multiply; the law is out, the car is 36 multi-line, the last hanging goa tail, before the province of the province (即 Palace Forbidden), this regulation later has always affected the Wei Jin, according to “Jin Shu · Zhi 10 The five “,” Yi Xi five years (409 years), Liu Yu (South Dynasty Liu Song, the founding of the country, 420-422) Lotong Chao (the Emperor Nan Yan, the Emperor of the South Yan, in place), gold钲辇, leopard, old style. “


Because of this, “Jianbao Tail”, “Van Leopard Tail” later refers to the establishment of the Emperor, “Jin Shu · Biography No. 56” recorded “(front cooling) dance six 佾 (Note: Zhou Zhou’s regulation of music dances) (Today, Hubei Province, Western Ezhou City, there are Dawu Temple in the south, Sun Quan is often hound in the mountains, the evening, see a rhyme, ask the right to take it.: 正 一 豹. Mother: Why not rope tail? “

The Wei Dynasty, the style of hidden, the image of the leopard also came between the “returning” forest. Cao Cao saw the “bitter cold” when I was “bitter” when I gave the Gao Jianwei, and I sighed “Xiong Yu squatted to me, Tiger Leopard.” Six “Miscellaneous Book” is recorded: “Nanhai Boluo County has Luo Mountain, high into the cloud, the mountains like the cactus also.” Southern Leopard beasts. “The famous mountain water poet Xie Yu is in Xuancheng County Linpu is moving in the bridge: “Although there is no muanopa, the end of the hidden mountain fog”, this sentence borrowed the allusion of the Han Dynasty Liu Xiang “List of the Women”: “闻 南山 has a Xuan Leopard, fog Seven days without getting food, what is it? I want to use it to become an article, hide, and far away. “The poet used the hidden Hanta in Nanshan to be more than the court as an official, avoiding the disaster, and later derived idioms “Nanshan Hidden Leopard” is used to compare those who are hidden and unsatisfactory. The image of this leopard also affects the later generation. The beginning of the first Tang poet Luo Bin king has “I stayed in the four things in the autumn”, “I leave the Leopard, Jun to Xue Xiang Peng” (meaning I left in vital, You go to see the verses of the fame. In addition, the wind of romantic Wei Jin also blows to the leopard. After Qin Yao and all in “post-Qin Ji”, “Di Boqi has hopped to hunt, seeing his Wen Cai Binghuan, I am sigh, my grandparer. “The pattern of the leopard actually brings the inspiration of practice calligraphy. In the late north and south, the first time in history has appeared in the history of the Emperor’s leopard patrol. The “North Qi, the main fortune Jinyang Palace” that the Sui Dynasty painter exhibit, reflected this scene, and later Yuan Dynasty official Hao Jing This topic poem: “Horse cheetah is golden, the most exact sea green side wings.”


Figure 7: Tang Zhang Zhuchao, the Leopard “Gun” in the drafting map (local)


In the Tang Dynasty, the leopard taire is no longer a quarter of the Son of the halogen book, but the car in front of the team, according to the “literature test, Wang Qi Tige”, “Taizong’s first year (627 years) November, the beginning plus Huangqi car, leopard taire, pass it to a car twelve multiplied, thinking that the use of the instrument. The big driving is fortunate, it is decentralized to the halogen book; if the big furnish, the rules are left Apply to the metrics. “” Song History · Middle “is more detailed in the leopard tail car:” Uploading the Zhu Zhiji, the first quadage leopard tail, the right Wuyu guard is one person. Drive two horses In addition to this, the leopard tail has also appeared in the military commander of the army, according to the Du Younang “Tongxing · One hundred and forty-eight forces”, “gun gun Two, the leopard tail is blade, after the red flag, the front of the book is left, “the team is in the leopard, and the gun of the leopard tail is followed by the red military door flag (Figure 7), stationary Separate on both sides outside of the command.


Figure 8: Tang Yu De Prince Tomb Floor Mangrong Takeahaga (Partial)

With the rise of the national transport of the Tang Dynasty, there is an upper aristocratic domesticate cheetah to become a wind, and most of these reuses come from the western region. On the murals of Tang Yu De Prince (682-701), a team of a team of Hu Tang returned to the gangla appeared (Figure 8). In the tombs of Jinxiang County (652-722), there was also an imaginary impassionate statue (Figure 9- Right). At the same time, the wild leopard is still the subject of royal hunting, in the tomb of Yongtai princess (685-701), she unearthed the hull riding a horse (Figure 9- Left). The Tang Dynasty welcomed the top peak of the animal and nursery, according to the “Book of the Yuan Yuan Turtle, the Ministry of Mission, the fourth”, Kaiyuan, Tianbao Since the western region, the cheetah is more than eight times:

“Kaiyuan eight years (720) … May Nantian Zhenguo sent a leopard; (Kaiyuan) fourteen years (726) February Ann Guo Dynasty sent his legs and female … Mayday I sent my brother A families and gods to delayed the Lai Dynasty. The Kang Kang sent a leopard and square; (Kaiyuan) fifteen years (727) May Kangguo Xianhu Women and Leopard … (July) Shi Shi must be able to make Hunguxi women and leopard; (Kaiyuan) seventeen years of primary month to make Huxuan women three and Leopard lions; (Tianbao) Six years (747 Year) … May, the dining king sent a leopard six, the Persian king sent a leopard four; (Tianbao) Ten years (751) February Twelve and Leopard Tiando each. “

Figure 9: Leopard image unearthed in the Tomb of the Tang Dynasty


Figure 10: Yuan Liu Chengdao “Yuan Shizu Hui Hui” (local, Taipei Palace Museum Tibet)

“Yuan Shizu Hui Hui” hunter detailed part of the head

After the chaos of An Shi, as the Datang Imperial Guo Li gradually declined, the activities of Huapping hunting gradually stopped, so he was also interrupted from overseas tribute, according to the “white hole six posts, volume ninety-seventh”: “徳 徳 即 即(742), let go of the country, the country, the children, the case … Baoying First Year (762) Jianzhan, the new month, the New Hai, “”

It is worth noting that in Wu Zetian short-term, the image of the leopard has appeared in the costumes of the Empire’s senior official in history, according to the “Old Tang Book”, “Invented in the First Year (694) In May, then there is a criminal, purple singles, broth, brutal, and broth, left and right, to the leopard, “This is also the image of Leopard in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The origin of the military fines.

During the Song Dynasty, the Jidan’s leopard hunting activities were still a common, according to the “Continued Treatment of General Telegraph, Volume Jiuqi”, contained, Tianyi Five Years (1021), making the Song Yu and others in the Liao Dynasty Dynasty, “Shangde Dan customs, cloud: …” The main account is in the northwest of the felt hut. I tasted the three leopards, I was very tamed, and I was sitting, and I was sitting in the place. ‘”This custom is also The impact on Mongolians who are the same as the grassland. There is a generation, and the atmosphere with cheetah is still a commonplace. Marco Polo recorded the situation of Yuan Shizu, who was in his travel, is in the case of livestock cheetah hunting: “Sweating has a leopard to use the hunting to catch the beast … Khan Weekly The poultry, sometimes riding a horse, set a pope, after the arrest of the beast, then return the leopard and go, after obtaining, in the bage of birds, the sweat is here to be happy. ” Also mentioned in the “Zhan Renshi Wen” of Yelu Chu, “Royal (ie royal stables) have a trutter, and it is in the wild beast.” Yuan Dynasty poet Wang Wei also insumed “Flying Eagle walks the dog, and takes the beast”. Yuan Dynasty painter Liu Chengdao depicts a cheeta in the horse back in the “Yuan Shizu”, it is worth noting that the cheeta in the picture is not like the neck zone since Handang, but the head wear Head, there are two straps through the underarm binding (Figure 10).

The primary retrienet comes from the western regional businessman, these merchants play the emperor’s banner to buy huge babies, according to the “Yuan Shi Wu Zong Budi”, “(to the second year, 1308) November … 巳 …… Back to the merchant to hold the book, Pepper, take the horse, the name is treated, and the name is “(until the two years, 1309) Xia April … There are inning, Baotine, etc. Lion, leopard. At the end of the Yuan, the traveler is basically coming from the Zeng Room of the Western Region, according to the “Yuan Shi Taili”, “(Tailor, 1324) May … Zhu Wang, The fourteenth generation of sweat), etc. 1324) March … Zhu Wangcheber, etc. Dedica May, Wang Shiberts sent to the leopard; November … Zhu Wang Shu Bao Dian Lantar; (Tail) four years (1327) March, Wangsi Poat Waiting for the literary leopard, Western Horse, Pepper, Jewelry, etc. In addition, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty sometimes gave the retriever to Chen, “Yuan Shi · Biography No. 11” recorded the cloud of clouds in Yunkuo, who came to Zhongshan, is suitable for crossing, and heaven , Self-cultivation, no, informality, describe “, so” Emperor’s Siki, gave the travelers, famous eagle, so that they will be the best “.”


In the early one hundred years, the wind of the Royal Beal Leopard is still popular, and the time to Ming Wu Zong is the most prosperous, and it will go to the fading after Mingshi. According to the “Special Weekly Conscription, Volume 11 · Xiqi”, Jiajing seven years (1528) Taoist Turki Shui Li Xiang said:


“Yongle (1403-1424), Xuan De (1426-1435), the old original gold leopard, jade leopard number, the formation (1465-1487) to raise thoughts more than 30. Hongzhi (1488- 1505) Annual raising Harawl, one gold line, more than 20 jade leopards. Zhengde (1506-1521), etc. Demonstration and the inside and outside the inside and outside the tribute leopard only give this room, since the country, it has been more than 100 yuan. It is not a good thing to settle today, and it is not good. 2 pounds of the sheep wine. Vulnerary monetarishes the old rules, there is no ancestral constitution (ie, existing laws, rules and regulations). “

Figure 11: Ming Le House Warrior Bronze Pass (China National Museum Tibet)

At that time, I was responsible for managing the Leopard Room, the Ming Dynasty opened the tradition of the Leopard, and she had seen the animal’s raising leopard as the law of the ancestors. Although it was refuted by the Mingzong, ” “” ” However, the Ming Dynasty’s unique 豹 于 二 年 年 年 年”Remember,” The Ministry of Practice, the creation of the leopard room, for five years, the price of the price has been more than 20,000 yuan, and today it is more than 200 rooms. ” Ming Wu Zong governed the country in Leopard, making it a political center of Daming Empire. In order to protect the driving, the leopard is often equipped with a warrior. They we wear “leopard warriors” with them, they have numbered numbers. The back is engraved with “Suspension of the Leopard Warriors, suspended this card, unlicensed The sin of law, borrowers and borrowers are the same “(Figure 11). Western scholars Gei Jiemin (James Geiss) believes that these Warriors have the responsibility of the Emperor, with the duties of the retrienet and the hunting, and this system may originate from the Yuan Dynasty.

Ming Wu Zong’s animal, hunting, actually aiming to re-resumed Ming Dynasty tradition, he will move the court to the leopard, leading to the impairment of the impairment of the Forbidden City, and suffered the dissatisfaction of the part of the power, the Ming Dynasty Yang Ting and Yang Wenzhong’s three records “complained:” Wen Gong and other chartered leopards, I don’t know what to do, my generation is the minister, and everything is not so knowing. “Since the emperor’s daily lives are in the leopard, The court entertainment has also moved, and the civil liberations of the lost have taken the opportunity to dig all kinds of paintings, irony, including the addition of fuel and vinegar to interpret Ming Wuzong in the palace of the leopard room, in the “Ming Wuzong Record” Both are everything. However, since Ming Wu Zong’s Hall Mingszong succeeded, until the Qing Dynasty, no one of the imperial calls.


Figure 12: Leopard and leopard tail clothing in Qing Dynasty (leading from the “Emperor Gift Pattern · Clearance Service”)

Figure 13: Emperor’s Halinated Leopard Tail Gun and Leopard Tail (from “Huang Dynasty Gift Pattern · Halogen Book”)

Figure 14: The emperor of the Qing Dynasty, the 营 门 纛 (聽聽 聽聽 聽聽 聽聽 聽聽


However, although the animal’s leopard gradually disappears, the leopard still acts in a variety of ways to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, of which leopard skin is still continuing in the tradition of the arrow target and official apparel in the shooting, but it has appeared in the previous generation. New changes: Ming Dynasty’s shootings were divided into seven grades, and the leopard skin targets appeared in three levels, according to the “Daming Club, Volume 51”, “Leopard 5 (ie five laps ) The palace’s high guards and the emperor trip, according to the “Huang Dynasty gift pattern, the crown service”, the second-level guard (martial arts four products) end cover “Red Leopard skin”, the halogen book, winter crown “leopard “Skin”, the halogen book school winter crown “leopard skin” (Figure 12). At the same time, Leopard is also in the form of Tianzi, according to the leopard tail gun and leopard tail, according to the “Qing Dynasty · 仪 卫”: “Leopard tail, long one foot Inch, blade long is one foot, take the wood, butter painting dragon, 銎 (Note: holes of the handle) Huttering the clouds, adding Zhu, the vertical ring hanging, three feet three times The shank is 9 foots and five inch, making it as a smashing … Leopard tail, hanging to go to the end of the goal, eight foots, the golden leaf, take the green leather, high inch five points, three inch eight points, plus gold bell (Figure 13). In addition, the leopard tail is also used to decorate the banner of the emperor’s travel, according to the “Huang Dynasty gift pattern · Wuupu” compiled by the Qing Dynasty, used for the emperor’s camp (Dào, the military Flag, see Figure 14), the inner city flag, the row, and the eight flag strikers of the eight flag soldiers are all “first crown gold plates, leaching, betting Zhu Wei”.

In addition, the image of the leopard also appeared on the Empire officials unique to the Empire official. It is particularly interesting that the leopard after the gift is generally succumbing to the tiger, but in the Qing Dynasty, it is tiger, and its status is under the Qilin (Yipin Wujuan), the Lion (Er Pin Wu Guan), but in the tiger (four products The martial arts) (Figure 15), for this phenomenon that is contrary to the traditional gift level, may only be explained with the personal preference of the emperor who originally developed this regulation.

Figure 15: Leopard image on the martial arts in the martial arts


Responsible editor: 继 贤


Author: 梦