Tang and Song furniture with “style and charm” and “bones and siblings”
The “style and charm” and “bones and siblings” were originally a high sum of the Tang poetry and Song poetry in “Talking”. The difference in poetry style has created two aesthetic patterns in the history of Chinese literature.
Poetry is the rhythm of text. Furniture is the poetry of wood. The differences in the style of Tang and Song dynasties also form two strange works in the history of Chinese furniture, and once again confirmed the precise summary of “style and charm” and “bone thinking”.
Tang Dynasty furniture with “style and charm”
The furniture of the Tang Dynasty was born during the Sui and Tang dynasties. Sitting into a trend due to the outerity, high -type furniture developed rapidly, and a complete combination of new high -type furniture appeared.
However, the high -type furniture of the Tang Dynasty was not equivalent to the high -type furniture of later generations. It was just different from the previous seats. Compared with the height of Ming -style furniture, the furniture of the Tang Dynasty was relatively short.
The large lacquer case and waist circular stool in Tang “Gong Le Tu” in Tang “Gong Le Tu” and the waist circular stool in Tang Le Tu
The end of the Tang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties (907-960) is the transition period of the changes in the form of Chinese furniture.
As the transitional stage of Chinese furniture, sitting on the ground, sitting, sitting, sitting sideways, sitting and sitting, sitting and sitting at this period were parallel.
The aesthetic feeling of furniture in the Tang Dynasty is like Tang poetry’s “style and charm” and the “colorful gorgeous” of Tang Sancai. The shape and decorative style are in the same vein with the magnificent Tang Dynasty.
The shape of Tang furniture is round, plump, fresh and gorgeous, and changing the quaint style of the former dynasty, presenting a generation of wealthy factions.
Tang Sancai (unearthed from Lifeng Tomb, Fuping, Shaanxi)
The Tang Dynasty furniture pursued the style of fresh and freedom in terms of process production and decoration, which made the Tang Dynasty furniture style get rid of the ancient and clumsy characteristics of Shang and Zhou, Han, and Six Dynasties, and replaced it with gorgeous Runyan, plump and dignified.
British scholar Wales said:
When the soul of the Westerners is obsessed with the darkness of the theology, the Chinese people’s thoughts are open, collectively and have to explore.
The far -reaching of Tang Culture has not only affected the development of Asian civilization, but also promoted the progress of Western and even world civilization.
There are none of those in the Tang Dynasty furniture. If you want to understand the decoration of Tang’s furniture, you can basically only use image materials such as painting, unearthed murals and a small number of unearthed models.
Japan ’s Treasure Model Model Model Format of the Masaurus Model Model Format
Fortunately, Japan’s Masakura House just preserved a group of furniture about the Tang Dynasty, including screens, several cases, bed couchs, chairs, dual land games, chess games, box cabinets, etc. All types provide us with rare physical information, a glimpse of the Tang Dynasty style.
Bird Mao Lidi Women’s Screen Six Full Pictures
The screen is one of the most important indoor furnishings in the dwelling era. Among the furniture that Masakuki Institute has entered Tibet, the screen is also the largest number. After more than 1,200 years of star cream, it has only been stored in more than forty fans. The complete person has only three stacked and eighteen fans, that is, the famous bird hair standing women’s screen is one of them.
Screen structure signal bird hair script screen screen
Bird -raised female screen six screens (partial)
Tang Kaiyuan at the end of Shaanxi, Shaanxi, Nandanliwang Village, Wei’s tomb murals of the murals of the murals of six screens
The most noticeable thing for “Bird Mao Li Women’s Screen” is the screen painting above it. The beauty screen painting and the lady’s shape under the same layout. It can be seen in many places such as the Tomb of the Weish, especially the Tomb of the Weish, which has nothing to do with it.
This screen found that the four years of Shengbao (AD 752) in the screen lined with paper, indicating that its production time was likely to be less than ten years before the end of the Tang Dynasty (AD 742). The popularity was in line with it.
Twenty -five years of Kaiyuan Wuhui Fei Jingling Shiqian carved
Rosewood paintings of Masakura Courtyard
The so -called “轼 轼”, that is, the ancients referred to as “levant”, can also be called knee, with a few, hidden, and a few. For a few straight sides, when you place two feet, sit on the couch or on the seat, you can place it in front of you to rest, or lean on the side of your body. furniture.
There is a “rosewood painting” in the north of the north of the Zhengcang Yuan. 33.5 cm high, 111.5 cm long, and 13.6 cm wide. A few sides (sky) with long beef and wood are posted on top of the rosewood plate, and the nanmu board is affixed to both ends. There are two feet at both ends, and the three layers of ivory rings are covered in the thin and narrow parts in the middle. The base of the foot and gold and silver inlaid around the feet depicts flowers, leaves, curls, and butterflies. The workmanship is meticulous, and there is a white Luo Luo Yaoli that is in line with the size.
How many in the “Tuyu Map” and “Emperor’s Map of the Dynasties”
What are the parts of the local maids of “Beiqi School Books”?
Several cases of furniture in front of me, in addition to the convenience of facilitation, there is also a fence case that can be placed, reading and writing, such as a “twenty -eight foot” hidden in Nakamura, the case is straightforward , 54 cm in the vertical, 104.5 cm horizontal, rail -shaped foot, fourteen feet on each side, 98.5 cm high. Placed in front of the bed or Zen chair, can also be used as a confession, and evolved into various cases of furniture in later generations.
Twenty -eight feet and lacquer eighteen feet in Zhengcangyuan
Twenty -eight -footed painted paintings
Hunan Yueyang Taohuashan Tang Tomb Unearthed Gallery Football Team
Huang Yan’s “Survey Map”
Hu bed and royal bed
One of the two sheets of Yoshiku Courtyard Royal Bed
Most of the daily lives of the Tang Dynasty are carried out on various beds. The bed is the most important furniture indoors.
From the Dunhuang murals and the tomb murals of the Tang Dynasty, this four -legged dwarf bed is very common in the Tang Dynasty. In addition to serving as a bedding, it can also be used as a general seated, or sit on the leg, kneel on it, or sit on it in it. Along, or placed on both sides of the large bed (table) for feasts. Japan’s later generations also continued to use it as the imperial bed and bedding table.
Dunhuang Cave 14 Caves North Wall mural men and women sit in a bed together
Dunhuang 323 Cave Holy Style Refusing Sideline Supporting as a bedding
Dunhuang Cave 454 Bodhisattva -hearted grade refuses to worship for medical support as sitting
The murals of Tang Tomb, Chang’an, Chang’an, Shaanxi, as a contract
What’s more precious is that there is also a “red lacquer beef beef bed” in Nancang. The high -foot chair introduced in the West is called “Hu Bed” (its concept is not a chair generally referred to), and the Tang people call it “leaning bed” and “rope bed”, that is, chairs.
The “red lacquer beylum bed” is 48.5 cm high, 42 cm high, 78.4 cm wide, and 70 cm deep. The surface is painted, the four -legged, corner, and copper foil plates on the ends, and the handrails on both sides stand on the front and back legs. With a straight brain, the end of both ends. The noodle drawing is wide and deep. It is compiled by rattan materials. People sit on it, and they can accommodate their knees, similar to the Zen chair called later generations.
Akihiko Yaki Boat Bed in Zhengcangyuan
Contemporary Black persimmon wooden chair
The monks sitting on the Zen chair in the Buddhist chair in the 61 Cave of Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang
The murals of Mogao Grottoes 9 Caves and Masters of Falun Temple
Dunhuang 138 Cave murals appear at the same time in four feet and Zen chairs at the same time
Song Dynasty furniture with “bones and pensions”
Gone styling / color pure / restrained and naive
No matter what is carved / rustic and winning / light and elegant
The Song Dynasty was a dynasty of the five generations of the five generations in Chinese history, and it was also the era of high prosperity of commodity economy, cultural education, and scientific innovation in ancient history.
If the Tang Dynasty furniture raised the Chinese from the ground to the chair, and the Song Dynasty furniture was preceded, then the furniture of the Song Dynasty directly became the source of the furniture of the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Some Song Yizheng evolved the shape of Chinese furniture, and the formal reserve was the main characteristic of this period.
The couch in Huaiyin eliminates Xia Tu
The famous historian Chen Yinque once said:
The culture of the Huaxia nation has a thousand years of evolution, and it is extremely in the world of Zhao Song.
The theory of calligraphy, painting and literati painting in the Song Dynasty achieved great achievements and influences. At the same time, the performance and status of the Han arts and crafts attracted worldwide attention.
Later generations are imperious and restrained by the Scholarship of the Song Dynasty literati, and the simplicity of the Song Dynasty literati thoughts can be seen from the Song Dynasty. The meaning of thought is clear.
Song Huizong Zhao Yan “Listening to the Qin”
In painting, Su Shi’s “Poetry and Painting Books, Tiangong and Fresh”, “Xiao San Jianyuan”, Ouyang Xiu’s “depression” and “brimming and fullness” jointly created “Gorgeous Extremely Black” The pursuit of art has greatly affected the aesthetic ideas of literati after the mid -Northern Song Dynasty. The scholars with such aesthetic interest are naturally implemented by the daily necessities. It is natural.
The shape of the furniture in the Song Dynasty was elegant, pure in color, and restrained and innocent.
Just like Song Shi’s white, it is reasonable to be reasonable,
“Bone and Bone” has also become a significant feature of furniture in the Song Dynasty. The integration of the literati’s speculation has risen from the daily necessities to a new height of aesthetics.
The literary tendency of Chinese furniture is actually from Song.
The tie -headed case in “Banana Fighting Ball Picture”
According to the data that can be found, the materials used in the Song Dynasty furniture include wood, bamboo, vine, grass, stone, etc., and are mainly wood. There are many types of wood. , Apricot wood, elm, cypress wood, jujube, nanmu, Zimu and other woodwood, ebony, sandalwood, rosewood and other hardwood. The use of hardwood shows that the furniture production process of the early Song Dynasty entered a new period.
Like the furniture of the Tang Dynasty, there are rare physical leaflets of furniture in the Song Dynasty. At present, more research is more based on ancient paintings circulated during the Song Dynasty. However, the fines of the Song people described the details of painting, like real things.
Eighteen Bachelor Pictures · Painting
In the painting of the Song Dynasty, we often see a seat with back and armrests, which are similar and different from the Ming and Qing rose chairs. They are characterized by low back height, most of which are flat with the armrests. We can call it a “flat armchair” and can be regarded as the predecessor of the Ming and Qing Rose chairs.
There is a record in the “Time Record” received in “Ancient and Modern Book Integration · Economic Compilation Examinations”:
Near the rope bed (referring to a chair), all of which lean to the balance, saying “folding back”. The words are not half a back. It is also creative by Chinese nobles. Gai Xun’s Supreme (Emperor) sat down. The scholars’ family is endless, often samples and are not good!
“Folding back” in the article refers to the Song -style rose chair.
Song -style rose chair (folding back)
Contemporary black rosewood black persimmon and wood Song -style chair
The furniture of the Song Dynasty also formed two major systems: “with waist” and “no waist” in the overall shape. Although the proportion of waist furniture at this time is not large, the performance of some furniture and images has been a bright bouquet. The development of waist furniture has been paved powerful.
In addition, the pursuit of Jian Chuo’s lines in the furniture is relatively mature in the Song Dynasty, and then the Ming -style furniture is the peak. The shape of the furniture of the Song Dynasty is full of lines, from the organic combination of various rigid and soft threads from the side wipes, tweezers, and legs and feet to the use of various straight lines and curves in the decorative patterns. This carrier reflected.
In the current physical objects of the Song Dynasty, although the relics of hardwood furniture have not been found, according to records, combined with some thin -style furniture images depicted in Song paintings, it is conceivable that at the time, some hardwoods had certain hardwoods who could have certain Developed.
The Song people’s identification of a variety of high -quality wood and the experience accumulated on hardwood furniture have made use of the hardwood technology of Ming -style furniture.
Whether it is the Tang Dynasty furniture of “style and charm” or the Song Dynasty furniture of “bones and pensions”. Although there are differences in the aesthetic style, it is an indispensable part of the history of Chinese furniture. profound influence.
Without the exploration and efforts of furniture, materials, crafts, aesthetics, etc. during the Tang and Song dynasties, it would not be possible to have the pinnacle of Ming -style furniture later.
Bird -raised female screen six screens (partial)
Hunan Yueyang Taohuashan Tang Tomb Unearthed Gallery Football Team